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Table 10 Summary of methods of prospective studies of self-initiated quitting among adolescents

From: Effects of sixty six adolescent tobacco use cessation trials and seventeen prospective studies of self-initiated quitting

Study authors Duration between first and last data collection time-point Year of first and last data time-point % male Age or grade range Number of smokers Definition of smoker Number of quitters % quitters Program exposure?
Alexander et al., 1983 1 year 1979–1980 50 10–12 year old students 551 Smoked in last month; approximately 10% of the sample had smoked in the last month at pretest 242 44 Yes
Ary, Biglan, 1988 1 year NR 50 Grades 7, 9, and 10 64 Smoked in last week 23 36 No
Chassin, Presson, Sherman, 1984 1 year 1981–1982 50 Grades 6–11 178 Monthly;
77% were weekly smokers at pretest
33 18.5 No
Chassin, Presson, Sherman, Edwards, 1991 7 years 1980–1988 50 Grades 6th through young adulthood (mean age at last wave = 21.8 years) 1056 Monthly smoking or greater;
27% of the sample were monthly smokers at pretest
338 32 No
Chen, White, Pandina, in press 7 years 1985/87–1992/94 41 18, 21, 24 year old at baseline 324 Greater than 1 cpd 57 18 No
Ellickson, McGuigan, Klein, in press 5 years 1990–1995 44 18 year old at baseline 2151 Smoked at cigarette within the last year 1093 51 Yes
Green, 1979 5 years 1974–1979 NR 12-to-18 year old at baseline 1200 NR 324 27 No
Hansen, Collins, Johnson, Graham, 1985 3 months 1981 32 15 to 16.5 yrs. 392 Identify as a "smoker" yes or no;
Mean = 7 cigarettes per day at pretest
129 33 Yes
Hansen, McNeal, under review 1 year; a series of contiguous years 1993–2000 48 Grades 6–11 1894 Monthly 563 30 No
Laoye, Cresswell, Stone, 1972 2 years 1966–1968 50 Grades 7–10 375 regular smokers
830 occasional smokers
Regular – smoked every day
Occasional – "once in a while"
98 regular smokers/446 of full smoker sample 26 regular smokers/37 of full smoker sample No
Paavola, Vartiainen, Puska, in press 13 years 1978–1993 49 15–28 year old;
15 year old at baseline
183 Occasional or daily smoking; occasional smoker equals less than once per month to 1–2 times per week; approximately 29% of the sample had smoked occasionally or daily at pretest (16%, daily) 64 34 (26% of daily smokers, 46% of occasional smokers) Yes
Sargent, Mott, Stevens, 1998 3 years 1987–1989 58 16–18 year old rural youth; 16 years old at baseline 276 Smoked in last month; approximately 20% of the sample had smoked in the last month at pretest; 55% were daily smokers 79 29 No
Skinner, Massey, Krohn, Lauer, 1985 3 years 1980–1982 50 Grades 7–12 642;
perhaps 96 (15%) were weekly smokers
Smoked once or twice 96 15 No
Stein, Newcomb, Bentler, 1996 12 years 1976–1988 29 Grades 7–9 through young adulthood (mean age at last wave = 25.5 years) 18 regular 259 triers or occasional Ever tried smoking 169 61 No
Sussman et al., unpublished data (Project TNT data) 1 year 1991–1992 50 8th grade at baseline 76 Weekly smoking; approximately 8% of the sample were weekly smokers at pretest 28 37 Yes
Sussman et al., 1998 1 year 1994–1995 58 14-to-19 year old (mean age = 16.7 years) 593 Smoked in last month; approximately 57% smoked within the last month at pretest 125 21 Yes
Zhu et al., 1999 4 years 1989–1993 53 12-to-19 year old at baseline 633 Smoked more than 100 cigarettes in life and in last 30 days; 60% were daily smokers; over all smokers mean of ~7.5 cpd 99 16 No
  1. NA = not applicable; NR = not reported.