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Table 11 Summary of results of prospective studies of self-initiated quitting among adolescents

From: Effects of sixty six adolescent tobacco use cessation trials and seventeen prospective studies of self-initiated quitting

Study authors Biochemical validation? Variables examined as predictors Significant univariate predictors Significant predictors controlling for covariation Type of analysis
Alexander et al., 1983 No Alcohol and analgesic use, friends', siblings and parental smoking, allowance, tobacco health knowledge, smoking attitudes, teacher gender, age Greater disapproval of smoking, fewer parent, friend and sibling smokers, disapproval of cigarette advertising, lower allowance (marginal), female teacher, younger Fewer sibling smokers, disapproval of cigarette advertising, lower allowance, younger Logistic regression
Ary, Biglan, 1988   Pretest smoking, addiction composite, SES composite, # siblings, parent smoking and tolerance, friends' smoking, re-Yes cent and daily alcohol or marijuana use, recent cigarette offers, intention to smoke in future Lower pretest smoking rate, less intention to smoke, fewer number of offers to smoke, fewer friends' smoking Fewer friend smokers for older youth, more negative parental attitudes for younger youth (marginal), Higher pretest smoking Stepwise discriminant analysis
Chassin, Presson, Sherman, 1984 Yes Parental and friends' smoking, parental and friends' attitudes about smoking, perceived parental support, strictness of parents and friends, motivation to comply with desires of parents and friends, health beliefs, perceived control of smoking more negative friend attitudes for younger youth, greater perceived parental support for younger youth (marginal), less strict peers (marginal), lower (higher) motivation to comply with friends for younger (older) youth (marginal) NR MANOVA with F and t test contrasts
Chassin, Presson, Sherman, Edwards, 1991 Yes Parental and friends' smoking, prevalence estimates of youth and adult smoking, parental and friends' attitudes about smoking, smoking attitudes, perceived health, social, and psychological consequences of smoking, perceived parental and friends' support, health beliefs, parent and friend control over one's smoking, values agreement in one's social network, value placed on, and expectations for, academic success and independence, parents and peers expectations of one's tolerance for deviance, academic success and independence, locus of control Less parental smoking, higher perceived parental support, higher parental expectations, greater network values agreement, more negative health and psychological concerns NR MANOVAs, F or t-test contrasts
Chen, White, Pandina, in press No Marital status, is subject a parent, work status, parental cigarette use, change in proportion of friends who smoke over the two time-points, negative beliefs about smoking, smoking to cope with stress, depression, prior heavy smoking, alcohol abuse/dependence Married by second time point, married to a non-smoker by second time point, decreases in proportion of friends who smoke Married by second time point, married to a nonsmoker by second time point, decreases in proportion of friends who smoke Chi-square and logistic regression
Ellickson, McGuigan, Klein, in press Yes Gender, ethnicity, parental education, age, nuclear family indicator, school grades, academic intentions, cigarette refusal self-efficacy, smoking intention, friends' smoking, perceived prevalence of smoking, parents' and friends' approval of smoking, any household smoking, alcohol use, deviance, # years since first cigarette Lower parental education, better school grades, higher refusal self-efficacy, lower smoking intention, fewer friends' use, fewer years since first cigarette NR Logistic regression
Green, 1979 NR Gender, age, eight factors of smoking attitudes Older age, less likely to hold stereotypes of smoking or of smokers NR NR
Hansen, Collins, Johnson, Graham, 1985 No Friends', parents' and siblings' smoking indices; five factors established with 72 smoking attitude/belief items: negative beliefs about smoking, positive short-term consequences, social morality, normative/prevalence expectations, rebelliousness Positive short-term consequences, social morality, friends' smoking Desire for positive short-term consequences of smoking, society has a right to do something about smoking, fewer friends who smoke Stepwise discriminant analysis
Hansen, McNeal, under review No Normative beliefs, manifest commitment, lifestyle incongruence, beliefs about consequences, resistance skill, goal setting skill, self esteem, social skill, decision making skill, stress management skill, alternatives, assistance skill More anti-tobacco normative beliefs, manifest commitment to avoid tobacco, perceived lifestyle incongruence, more negative beliefs about consequences, resistance skill higher self esteem, slightly better decision making and stress management skills NR Analysis of variance
Laoye, Cresswell, Stone, 1972 No Gender, level of smoking, grade level More boys, occasional smokers, earlier grade levels NR Chi-square
Paavola, Vartiainen, Puska, in press No Gender, marital status, education, social class (white/blue collar), employed or not, income, children, smoking among spouse, best friend (and cessation), and co-workers, passive smoking exposure, leisure time, type/quantity of milk, fat, alcohol consumed Female gender, married (not cohabitation), white collar, employed, spouse is nonsmoker, best friend is non-smoker, less leisure time, no milk or skim milk consumed, low or no alcohol consumption NR Chi-square
Sargent, Mott, Stevens, 1998 No Gender, paternal education (SES), school performance, pretest smoking, years since initiating smoking, previous cessation attempts, attitudes toward quitting now and in future, attitudes towards heavy smokers, smoking in one's social environment, alcohol use, happiness, self-competence, locus of control, desire for independence, social awareness Lower pretest smoking, disapproval of others = heavy smoking, male gender, less tobacco use in one's social environment in last year, no cessation experience, lack of desire to quit now, intention to quit smoking in future Lower pretest smoking, intention to quit smoking in future Logistic regression
Skinner, Massey, Krohn, Lauer, 1985 Yes Attachment to father, mother, and friends, parental supervision, commitment to education, time spent on homework, commitment to work, religiosity, commitment to school activities, adherence to conventional values, morality drug use, friends' smoking, parental smoking Fewer friends smoking for females only Not necessary T-tests and discriminant analysis
Stein, Newcomb, Bentler, 1996 No Pretest smoking, depression, socializing with peers, extroversion, friends' smoking NR Lower pretest smoking and less friends' smoking EQS structural equations modeling
Sussman et al., unpublished data [a] Yes Ethnicity, age, gender, SES, living situation, pretest smoking, smoking intention, current alcohol and marijuana use, friends' smoking and approval of smoking, prevalence estimates of peer smoking, peer commitment, refusal self-efficacy, general assertiveness, latch-key, family conflict, social maturity, risk-taking, health as a value, sense of coherence, health risk factors, self-esteem, perceived stress, loneliness/depression, program success expectancies Greater importance of health as a value, greater sense of coherence Greater importance of health as a value, greater sense of coherence Logistic regression
Sussman et al., 1998 Yes Ethnicity, age, gender, SES, living situation, acculturation, pretest smoking, smoking intention, current alcohol and marijuana and hard drug use, addiction concern, friends' smoking and approval of smoking, prevalence estimates of peer smoking, general assertiveness, family conflict, fear of victimization, morality of drug use, sensation seeking, health as a value, perceived stress, depression, program success expectancies Latino ethnicity, not white ethnicity, lower pretest smoking, less intention to smoke in future, slightly lower addiction concern, fewer friends' who were smokers, belief in greater immorality of drug use, higher on health as a value, lower perceived stress, greater drug abuse prevention program success expectancies Lower pretest smoking, less intention to smoke in future, lower perceived stress Random regression model (PROC MIXED)
Zhu et al., 1999 No Gender, age, ethnicity, smoking and quitting history, perception of danger of smoking, father, mother, sibling smoking, parental attitudes toward their children smoking, friends' smoking, school no-smoking policy, class at school on smoking health risks, school achievement, smoking intention, depression Lower pretest smoking, never quit or quit for greater than two weeks in past, greater smoking danger perception, less intention to smoke in future, mother and father do not smoker and fewer friends' smoke, above average school achievement, less depressed Lower pretest smoking, never quit or quit for greater than two weeks in past, less intention to smoke in future, mother not smoker, less depressed Logistic regression
  1. NR = not reported.