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Table 3 Cessation studies – program contents

From: Effects of sixty six adolescent tobacco use cessation trials and seventeen prospective studies of self-initiated quitting

Investigators Theoretical guide Modalities #Sessions
Ary et al. Social influence-oriented prevention Classroom program, three parent messages, videos 10
Aveyard et al. Stages of change model – normative/ipsative feedback, smoking pros/cons; control-information on health Three computer expert system lessons and three classes 6
Baskerville, Hotte, Dunkley Contingency-based, quit-and-win contest contingent on smoke free month, buddy support, chemical addiction System-wide, school-based contest and self-help materials, youth signed up from 10 high schools NA
Bauman et al. Motivation enhancement, parenting, modeling, social influences Family-directed, through mail and phone calls NA (5 booklets, 15 activities)
Beaglehole et al. Social influence and health belief model versus standard care fear information and discussion Classroom program with films NR (semester course)
Biener et al. Supply reduction: $0.25 excise tax System-wide, state-wide reaction to price increase NA
Chakravorty Substitution (chemical addiction) and education School clinic 2
Charlton Cognitive-behavioral – "Packing it in?" School clinic or self-help 6
Cinnomin, Sussman Cognitive-behavioral, social influences, chemical addiction School clinic 6
Colby et al. Brief motivation enhancement-oriented Medical hospital clinic 1
Coleman-Wallace et al. Stages of change – TEG and TAP; cognitive-behavioral Mostly school clinic, videos, cooperative learning 8
Corby et al. Contingency-based, 1-week contingency management ($40) CO measurement at a medical-type clinic NA
Digiusto Cognitive-behavioral, social influences School clinic 6
Dino et al. Cognitive-behavioral, social influences, chemical addiction School clinic; single-gender groups led by same-gender facilitator; brief intervention – 20 minute quit advice and self-help material 12
Eakin, Severson, Glasgow Cognitive-behavioral, coping skills – 4 As At Oregon Research Institute, school-like clinic, small group meetings, 2–3 counselors, videos 3
Etter, Ronchi, Perneger Supply reduction, policy, information campaign, self-help System-wide, smoke-free areas, posters, leaflets, self-help quit manuals at part of university NA
Fibkins Recovery/addiction, student assistance counseling model, recovery concepts: "Five Hour a Day" School clinic with counselor and nurse 6
Forster et al. Supply reduction; make youth tobacco access a salient issue, change ordinances, change retailer and parent practices, enforcement of sale laws System-wide, community organizer teams, group presentations, letter and petition drives, meetings with community leaders and retailers, media campaigns, purchase attempts NA
Glasgow et al. Brief motivation enhanced-oriented and follow-up support phone calls Medical-like planned parenthood clinic, short video, brief counseling, 1–3 phone calls 1–2
Glover Cognitive-behavioral-ACS Fresh Start College/school clinic 2
Goldberg, Gorn Motivation enhancement, personal involvement to help younger youth College classroom program, films, advertisement analysis, social influence texts, discussion ~16
Greenberg, Deputat Affect-oriented, fears, facts or values School clinic, films 7
Hafstad, Aaro, Langmark Motivation enhancement, cognitive consistency – popular opinions and being a smoker System-wide, newspaper ads, poster, 1 TV and cin ema spot; home-mailed questionnaires NA
Horn et al. Cognitive-behavioral, social influences, chemical addiction School clinic; single-gender groups led by same-gender facilitator; brief intervention – 20 minute quit advice and self-help material 14
Horswell, Horton Social influence – Canadian Cancer Society's Fresh Start Program School clinic: "Pack in Those Smokes" 3
Hotte et al. Cognitive behavioral-consequences, coping with withdrawal School clinic: "Quit 4 life" 7
Hurt et al. Chemical addiction, brief 4A's intervention: advice to quit, self-help material Medical clinic; nicotine patch use 7 (1 advice 6 patch checks
Jason, Mollica, Ferrone Social influence, immediate and long-term consequences of smoking Classroom program 6
Jerome Chemical addiction, gradual with-drawal, self-help cognitive-behavioral guide Hand-held computer, weekly support meetings at high school 8
Johnson et al. Social influence and short-term consequences/long-term consequences; public commitment in both conditions Classroom program, videos 4
Kempf, Stanley Supply reduction, smoke-free policy versus no regulation of smoking outside the building More a medical clinic context, residential therapeutic community drug treatment programs NA
Killen et al. Social influence, social-cognitive/increase attractiveness of 4 health practices Classroom program 20
Lampkin Stage of change, some addiction and mo tivation enhancement School based health center (medical context) 4
Librett Cognitive-behavioral, alter tobacco use expectancies, build self-efficacy School clinic 6
Lotecka, McWhinney Cognitive-behavioral, coping School clinic 4
Matson-Koffman, Miller Contingency-based, quit and win/tobacco free teens, contest, chemical addiction, phone counseling School clinic 8
McDonald, Roberts, Deeschaemaker Therapeutic community and "I quit" derived, adult cessation & recovery concepts Medical, inpatient treatment 5
Mills, Ewy, Dizon Stages of change-pre-contemplation, social influence, contract with buddy control School clinic 8
Murray, Prokhorov, Harty Social influences-oriented System-wide, higher taxes on tobacco, school-based with smoke-free campuses and education, mass-media campaign on TV and radio and newspapers and billboards, and local community grants NR
Myers, Brown Recovery oriented Medical, inpatient treatment – generalization to cigarettes NA; 28 – not tobacco
Myers, Brown, Kelly Motivation enhanced, with cognitive-behavioral and social influence material Medical, outpatient treatment – at three facilities 6
Pallonen Stages of change Computer assisted 3
Patten Cognitive-behavioral, chemical addiction, social influence Medical clinic consultation, telephone and mail follow-up 2
Patterson Cognitive behavioral-similar to f resh start School clinic 6
Pendell Stages of change – TEG and TAP Mostly school clinic, videos, cooperative learning 16
Perry et al. Comprehensive social influences Prevention and cessation in classroom program, films, self-monitoring 4
Perry et al. Comprehensive social influences, prevention component oriented Prevention in senior high school classroom, films, self-monitoring 3
Peters Cognitive behavioral-consequences, coping with withdrawal System-wide, self-help quit kit "Quit 4 life", call a toll free number to request kit NA
Peterson, Clark Social influence, group decision to cut down School clinic 3
Popham et al. Social influence, health and social consequences, society's disapproval, profit motivation of tobacco industry System-wide, TV, radio, outdoor and print media. 13 general audience ads, 2 youth-focused ads NA
Prince Cognitive behavioral School clinic 6
Quinlan and McCaul Stages of change-pre-contemplation (costs and benefits), action (quit techniques and quit date) Brief university clinic-two activities and take home materials 1
Rigotti et al. Supply reduction, enforcement of no-sales laws to minors System-wide, health department distributed written information to vendors and penalized noncompliance; minors attempted to purchase tobacco from vendors, surveys NA
Skjoldebrand, Gahnberg Addiction model Medical, 1 public dental clinic: interviews and advice about tobacco, waiting room posters, brochures, and video program, some instruction by dental nurses in a group-information format, referral to tobacco detoxification program offered NA
Smith et al. Addiction model Medical clinic-like, patch, behavioral counseling with group support-coping, wellness, relapse prevention 8
St.Pierre, Shute, Jaycox Cognitive-behavioral, I-quit, psychosocial dependency, chemical addiction School clinic, video 6
Suedfeld et al. Affect-oriented, SD to "unfreeze" attitudes and permit change University lab; sensory deprivation (Sensory D) chamber 1 24 hour Sensory D session
Sussman, Burton et al. Cognitive-behavioral, psychosocial dependency and chemical addiction School clinic, videos 5
Sussman, Dent, Lichtman Motivation enhancement, with social influences and chemical addiction material School clinic, school meetings and events in 1 condition 8
Sussman, Dent, Stacy Motivation enhancement-skills-decision making-chemical addiction Continuation high school classroom program 12
Townsend et al. Social influence Medical, nurse or physician assisted, quit pamphlet, general practice setting 1
Vartiainen et al. Contingency-based, quit-and-Win lottery (for ~$1,600) System-wide, through schools, biochemically validated quitting to enter lottery NA
Wakefield et al. Supply reduction: restrictions on smoking at home, school and public places System-wide, cross-sectional survey; self-reports NA
Zavela, Harrison, Owens Substitution (addiction), with coping-oriented material College clinic 9
Zavela, Harrison, Owens Substitution (addiction), with coping-oriented material College clinic 9
Zheng Motivation enhanced, with social influence and addiction School-based clinic setup in community center 8
  1. NA = not applicable; NR = not reported.