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Table 1 Epidemiologic evidence for smoking-induced impairment of renal function

From: Cigarette smoking: an important renal risk factor – far beyond carcinogenesis

• Dose-dependent increase of urinary albumin excretion rate/proteinuria in cigarette smokers
• Dose-dependent increase of the risk of end-stage renal failure in male cigarette smokers of the general population
• Independent predictor of (micro)albuminuria in patients with primary hypertension
• Most powerful predictor of renal functional decline in patients with primary hypertension
• Increased risk of progression of renal failure in patients with primary renal disease
• In type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus: independent risk factor for the onset of microalbuminuria, for progression of microalbuminuria to manifest proteinuria
(i.e., diabetic nephropathy) and for acceleration of the rate of progression of diabetic nephropathy to end-stage renal failure
• Increased risk of renal allograft loss