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Table 4 Model-adjusted mean saliva and urinary biomarker levels pre- and post-law, Ontario, 2005-06

From: Cigarette ignition propensity, smoking behavior, and toxicant exposure: A natural experiment in Canada

Biomarker Pre (95% CI) Post (95% CI) Change B p
Breath CO (ppm)1 4.6 (3.7, 5.4) 4.8 (3.9, 5.7) 4.3% 0.26 0.580
Saliva Cotinine2
(ng/mL)
303.9 (242.0, 381.7) 351.1 (291.6, 422.6) 15.5% 0.14 0.126
Urine Naphthols2
(NAP)
20046.3 (16281.8, 24681.3) 22904.8 (19809.2, 26481.5) 14.3% 0.13 0.209
(ng/g creatinine)
Urine
     
Hydroxyfluorenes2
(FLUOR)
2616.3 (2121.1, 3226.7) 3196.1 (2651.3, 3852.6) 22.2% 0.20 0.013
(ng/g creatinine)
Urine
     
Hydroxyphenanthrenes2
(PHEN)
469.1 (391.4, 562.3) 546.6 (458.2, 652.0) 16.5% 0.15 0.061
(ng/g creatinine)
Urine
     
1-hydroxypyrene 2
(PYR)
(ng/g creatinine)
162.4 (124.0, 212.7) 200.6 (155.6, 258.6) 23.5% 0.21 0.018
  1. Notes: Means adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, brand, total volume, IPI, velocity
  2. 1. Arithmetic mean
  3. 2. Geometric mean
  4. The table above shows the geometric average values, percent change Pre and Post RIP compliance, B and statistical significance for all biomarker variables. The model is adjusted for age, gender, race, brand, and topography covariates. All significant changes are noted by bold p values. All participants who did not complete the study were excluded for analysis.
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