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Table 1 Tobacco augments biofilm formation in multiple human pathogens

From: Scratching the surface – tobacco-induced bacterial biofilms

Bacterium (Gram) Disease Stimulus 1 Study
Klebsiella pneumonia (−) Chronic rhinosinusitis isolate Whole smoke Goldstein-Daruech et al. 2011 [29]
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (−) Nosocomial infections; UTI; respiratory infections including pneumonia Whole smoke Antunes 2012 [30]
Goldstein-Daruech et al. 2011 [29]
Porphyromonas gingivalis (−) Chronic periodontitis CSE Bagaitkar et al. 2009, 2011 [1,31]2
Proteus vulgaris (−) Chronic rhinosinusitis isolate Whole smoke Goldstein-Daruech et al. 2011 [29]
Staphylococcus aureus (+) Nosocomial infections; endocarditis; osteomyelitis; respiratory infections CSE Kulkarni 2013 [32]
Goldstein-Daruech et al. 2011 [29]
Streptococcus pneumoniae (+) Pneumonia, bronchitis; endocarditis; meningitis CSC Cockeran et al. 2014 [33]
Mutepe et al. 2012 [34]
Goldstein-Daruech et al. 2011 [29]
Streptococcus mutans (+) Dental caries Nicotine, CSC Li 2014 [8]3
Huang et al. 2012 [35]
Baboni 2010 [36]
  1. 1See references for precise methods of whole smoke exposure, CSE (cigarette smoke extract) or CSC (cigarette smoke condensate) preparation and of biofilm quantification.
  2. Dual species biofilms with S. gordonii 2 or S. sanguinis 3.