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Table 2 Comparison of outcomes for participants with and without mental illness displaying both pooled and intervention level results for the three interventions (21 mg nicotine patch, 16 mg e-cigarette, 0 mg e-cigarette)

From: E-cigarettes versus NRT for smoking reduction or cessation in people with mental illness: secondary analysis of data from the ASCEND trial

Outcome Intervention Mental Illness (n = 86, 13%) patch n = 35, 16 mg e-cigarette n = 39, 0 mg e-cigarette n = 12 No Mental Illness (n = 571, 87%) patch n = 260 , 16 mg e-cigarette n = 250, 0 mg e-cigarette n = 61 Difference (p value)
Biochemically verified continuous abstinence at six months % (n) All interventions pooled 8% (7) 6% (34) 0.435
21 mg nicotine patch 14% (5) 5% (12) 0.038a
16 mg e-cigarette 5% (2) 7% (19) 0.750a
0 mg e-cigarette 0% (0) 5% (3) -
Relapse rate at six months % (n) All interventions pooled 79% (68) 67% (380) 0.020
21 mg nicotine patch 71% (25) 67% (175) 0.931
16 mg e-cigarette 85% (33) 66% (164) <0.0001
0 mg e-cigarette 83% (10) 67% (41) 0.239
Mean reduction in CPD from baseline to six months in those that did not quit Mean (SD) All interventions pooled 7.7 (6.7) 8.4 (7) 0.508
21 mg nicotine patch 5.7 (6.3) 7.4 (7) 0.299
16 mg e-cigarette 9.9 (7) 9.4 (7.1) 0.743
0 mg e-cigarette 4.7 (3.5) 8.3 (5.9) 0.129b
Percentage reduction in CPD from baseline to six months in those that did not quit Mean (SD) All interventions pooled 40% (30%) 46% (33%) 0.154
21 mg nicotine patch 29% (30%) 41% (35%) 0.147
16 mg e-cigarette 49% (28%) 51% (31%) 0.660
0 mg e-cigarette 31% (26%) 47% (28%) 0.245b
Treatment compliance at three months % (n) All interventions pooled 39% (30) 37% (167) 0.757
21 mg nicotine patch 20% (6) 18% (34) 0.752
16 mg e-cigarette 53% (19) 51% (107) 0.861
0 mg e-cigarette 46% (5) 54% (26) 0.741
Adverse events rate (events/person month) All interventions pooled 0.078 0.084 0.666 (IRR 0.93, 95% CI 0.68-1.28)
16 mg e-cigarette and 0 mg e-cigarette combined 0.05 0.05 0.592 (IRR 0.89, 95% CI 0.59-1.35)
Acceptability of intervention at six months
‘Would recommend to a friend’ % (n) All interventions pooled 65% (49) 72% (313) 0.207
21 mg nicotine patch 37% (11) 63% (19) 0.122
16 mg e-cigarette 83% (30) 85% (175) 0.752
0 mg e-cigarette 80% (8) 89% (42) 0.594a
‘Stopped as didn’t like it ’ % (n) All interventions pooled 34% (21/62) 32% (108/343) 0.711
21 mg nicotine patch 41% (12/29) 41% (169/169) 0.956
16 mg e-cigarette 29% (7/24) 23% (33/146) 0.482
0 mg e-cigarette 22% (2/9) 21% (6/28) 1.000a
  1. CPD = cigarettes per day smoked, SD = standard deviation, IRR = Incidence rate ratio, CI = confidence interval, aFishers Exact test, bMann-Whitney test.