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Table 3 Comparison of outcomes for mental illness participants who used 16 mg nicotine e-cigarettes, 0 mg e-cigarettes and 21 mg nicotine patches

From: E-cigarettes versus NRT for smoking reduction or cessation in people with mental illness: secondary analysis of data from the ASCEND trial

Outcome 21 mg nicotine patch (n = 35, 40%) 16 mg nicotine e-cigarette (n = 39, 45%) 0 mg nicotine e-cigarette (n =12, 14%) Difference (p-value)
Biochemically verified continuous abstinence at six months % (n) 14% (5) 5% (2) 0 0.245 (patch vs. 16 mg e-cig)a
- (16 mg vs. 0 mg e-cig)
0.115 (patch vs. combined e-cig)a
Relapse rate at six months % (n) 71% (25) 85% (33) 83% (10) 0.169 (patch vs. 16 mg e-cig)
1.000 (16 mg vs. 0 mg e-cig)
0.149 (patch vs. combined e-cig)
Mean reduction in CPD from baseline to six months in those that did not quit Mean (SD) 5.7 (6.3) 9.9 (7) 4.7 (3.5) 0.035 (patch vs. 16 mg e-cig)
0.068 (16 mg vs. 0 mg e-cig)
0.083 (patch vs. combined e-cig
Percentage reduction in CPD from baseline to six months in those that did not quit Mean (SD) 29% (30%) 49% (30%) 31% (30%) 0.025 (patch vs. 16 mg e-cig)
0.153 (16 mg vs. 0 mg e-cig)
0.049 (patch vs. combined e-cig)
Treatment compliance at three months % (n) 20% (6) 53% (19) 46% (5) 0.006 (patch vs. 16 mg e-cig)
0.670 (16 mg vs. 0 mg e-cig)
0.006 (patch vs. combined e-cig)
Adverse events 17 (in 16 people) 22 (in 15 people) 5 (in 4 people) -
Acceptability of intervention at six months
‘Would recommend to a friend’ % (n) 37% (11) 83% (30) 80% (8) <0.001 (patch vs. 16 mg e-cig)
1.000a (16 mg vs. 0 mg e-cig)
<0.001 (patch vs. combined e-cig)
‘Stopped as didn’t like it’ % (n) 41% (12/29) 29% (7/24) 22% (2/9) 0.356 (patch vs. 16 mg e-cig)
1.000a (16 mg vs. 0 mg e-cig)
0.242 (patch vs. combined e-cig)
  1. CPD = cigarettes per day smoked, SD = standard deviation, aFishers Exact test.