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Table 1 Comparison of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita (US$), and smoking prevalence in countries of origin, host countries and among immigrants

From: Factors associated with smoking in immigrants from non-western to western countries – what role does acculturation play? A systematic review

Country of origin of immigrants GDP per capita (US$, 2012) in country of origin 1 Smoking prevalence in country of origin in 2011 2 Smoking prevalence among immigrants according to studies included in the review Study reporting the smoking prevalence among immigrants 7
Host country: United States of America | GDP per capita (US$, 2012): 51,749 | Smoking prevalence (2011): Men 21%, Women 17%
China 6,091 Men: 47% Men: 16% 2
Women: 2% Women: 7%
  Men: 14% 7
Women: 6%
Men: 18% 11
Women: 4%
Men: 25% 12
Women: 3%
Men: 15% 6
Women: 4%
Men: 34% 15
Women:2%
Total: 24% 14
Hmong4 men: 12% 1
Hmong4 women: 1%
Cambodia 945 Men: 42% Men: 14% 1
Women: 3% Women: 2%
  Total: 42% 14
Laos 1,412 Men: 48% Men: 32% 1
Women: 4% Women: 4%
Republic of Korea 22,590 Men: 49% Men: 32% 10
Women: 8% Women: 4%
  Men: 39% 16
Women: 7%
Men: 37% 6
Women: 9%
Men: 27% 13
Total: 27% 14
Vietnam 1,755 Men: 46% Men: 42% 1
Women: 2% Women: 1%
  Men: 32% 6
Women: 2%
Men: 32% 8
Men: 43% 19
Total: 40% 14
Philippines 2,587 Men: 44% Men: 35% 5
Women: 10% Men: 24% 7
Women: 10%  
Men: 25% 6
Women: 8%
Mexico 9,749 Men: 27% Men: 33% 4
Women: 8% Women: 11%
Men: 29% 9
Women: 10%
Hispanic5 men: 20% 7
Hispanic5 women: 8%
El Salvador 3,790 Men: 24% Men: 20% 17
Women: 3% Women: 3%
  Hispanic5 men: 20% 7
Hispanic5 women: 8%
Sub-Saharan Africa3 1,417 Men: 22% Men: 22% 18
Women: 4% Women: 7%
Arab world3 7,048 Men: 37% Men: 60% 3
Women: 4% Women: 11%
South Asia3 1,398 Men: 36% Men: 16% 6
Women: 8% Women: 3%
Host country: Canada GDP per capita (US$, 2012): 52,219 Smoking prevalence (2011): Men 20%, Women: 15%
Ethiopia 454 Men: 8% Men: 28% 20
Women: <1% Women: 10%
Host country: Germany GDP per capita (US$, 2012): 41,863 Smoking prevalence (2011): Men 35%, Women: 25%
Former Soviet Union3 9,464 Men: 44% Men: 37% 22
Women: 11% Women: 16%
Turkey 10,666 Men: 42% Men: 49% 23
Women: 13% Women: 28%
Host country: Ireland 6 GDP per capita (US$, 2012): 45,932 Smoking prevalence (2011): Men 23%, Women: 20%
Poland 12,708 Men: 38% Men: 51% 21
Women: 27% Women: 40%
Host country: Australia GDP per capita (US$, 2012): 67,556 Smoking prevalence (2011): Men 21%, Women: 19%
Arab world3 7,048 Men: 37% Men: 44% 27
Women: 4% Women: 23%
Host country: The Netherlands GDP per capita (US$, 2012): 45,955 Smoking prevalence (2011): Men 29%, Women: 23%
Turkey 10,666 Men: 42% Men: 63% 24
Women: 13% Women: 32%
Morocco 2,902 Men: 32% Men: 30% 24
Women: 2% Women: 1%
Suriname 9,376 Men: 17% Men: 55% 24
Women: 3% Women: 30%
Host country: Norway GDP per capita (US$, 2012): 99,558 Smoking prevalence (2011): Men 28%, Women: 26%
Turkey 10,666 Men: 42% Men: 56% 25
Women: 13% Women: 28%
Iran 6,816 Men: 26% Men: 42% 25
Women: 1% Women: 23%
Pakistan 1,257 Men: 38% Men: 34% 25
Women: 7% Women: 4%
Vietnam 1,755 Men: 46% Men: 36% 25
Women: 2% Women: 5%
Sri Lanka 2,923 Men: 31% Men: 19% 25
   Women: 1% Women: 1%
Host country: United Kingdom | GDP per capita (US$, 2012): 39,093 | Smoking prevalence (2011): Men 22%, Women: 22%
China 6,091 Men: 47% Men: 24% 26
Women: 2% Women: 1%
  1. 1Source: The World Bank – GDP per capita (currency US$) 2012. URL: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.PCAP.CD.
  2. 2Source: WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic from 2013 (Ethiopia: 2011, Suriname: 2009). URL: http://www.who.int/tobacco/global_report/en/.
  3. 3As no measures are available for these aggregated geographical areas, GDP per capita was calculated as sum of GDP divided by sum of population of all countries, smoking prevalences were averaged across all countries.
  4. 4Hmong people originate from many different Southeast Asian and East Asian countries. As most of them live in China, prevalences were assigned to China.
  5. 5Hispanic or Latino Americans originate from different Latin American countries or the Iberian Peninsula. As only immigrants from Mexico and El Salvador were investigated in the scope of this review, prevalences were assigned to each of both countries.
  6. 6Source: Health Service Executive: Cigarette Smoking Prevalence in Ireland 2013. URL: http://www.hse.ie/eng/about/Who/TobaccoControl/Research/.
  7. 7Studies are presented as numbers, further information on studies is specified in Table 4.