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Table 2 Findings of the systematic review

From: Factors associated with smoking in immigrants from non-western to western countries – what role does acculturation play? A systematic review

Factors associated with smoking Smoking was positively associated with the stated factor among Studies reporting the association #
Men and women Men Women
Acculturation scale Low vs. high    3
High vs. low    9
  Low vs. high High vs. low 1,10,12*
Acculturation with main focus on the following proxy measures: Proficiency in the language of host country   Low vs. high High vs. low 11*,7,5*,6, 8*,19*
Length of stay in host country   Short vs. long Long vs. short 13*,6
Country of birth $   Foreign-born vs. native-born Native-born vs. foreign-born 7
Country of smoking initiation Country of origin vs. host    4,9
Age at migration Young vs. old    9
Proficiency in the language of host country §   Low vs. high High vs. low 15*,16*
Length of stay in host country § Long vs. short    18,21
  Short vs. long Long vs. short 2*,16*,20,22,23
Country of birth §,$ Native-born vs. foreign-born    18,23
Gender Being male vs. female All studies except for 5*,8*,13*,19*
Educational level Low vs. high    1,20,21,18,14,7,6,27
  Low vs. high High vs. low 19*,5*,15*,16*, 2*,8*,4,22,23,24,25
Employment No vs. yes    18,27
Yes vs. no    21,10
  Yes vs. no   11*,13*
Age Young vs. old    1,14,10,26,27
  Young vs. old   2*,13*,11*,19*
Income Low vs. high    7,18
  Low vs. high   5*,2*
Religion   Not religious vs. religious   20,16*
Marital status Non-married vs. married    20,14,7,18,6,27
  Non-married vs. married   8*
Self-assessed health status Poor vs. good    27
Pre-migration life events   Exposed vs. non-exposed Non-exposed vs. exposed 20
Post-migration life events   No association Exposed vs. non-exposed 20
Social support   Satisfied vs. not satisfied No association 20
Alcohol consumption Yes vs. no    6
  Yes vs. no   13*,8*,16*
Knowledge of tobacco risks   Low vs. high/moderate   11*
Knowledge of cancer warning signs   No vs. yes   15*
Perceived risk of smoking-related diseases   High vs. low   5*
Blood check and/or physical checkup   No vs. yes   8*
Source of health care   Non-western vs. western   15*
Role model smoking   Yes vs. no   19*,5*
Depression score   Higher vs. lower   19*
Regular exercise   Less vs. more   19*
Health insurance   Not available vs. available   11*,19*
Geographical area of origin (in country of origin)   Rural vs. urban   19*
  1. #Studies are presented as numbers, further information on studies is specified in Table 4.
  2. *Indicates studies that either restricted their highest statistical method or the study population in general to men only.
  3. $Only applicable to studies that investigated foreign- and native-born migrants.
  4. §Variables that were included in the studies without linking them to acculturation. Thus, the respective variable is listed separate from acculturation.