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Table 3 Acculturation measures used in the studies included for the review

From: Factors associated with smoking in immigrants from non-western to western countries – what role does acculturation play? A systematic review

Study* Acculturation measure (proxy variable) Were proxy measures explicitly used to measure acculturation? Acculturation measure (scale)
1 Primary language, percentage of life lived in USA Yes Community and acculturation identification measure (21 items); two main constructs: cultural fluency and cultural orientation (to assess country of origin or US identification)
2 Length of stay No  
3    MAAS scale (Male Arab-American Acculturation) (8 items); two main constructs: separation and assimilation & integration and marginalisation
4 Country of smoking initiation Yes  
5 Length of stay, self-perceived ethnic/cultural identity, language proficiency (English, Tagalog) Yes  
6 English language used at home, length of stay Yes  
7 English language proficiency, length of stay, country of birth Yes  
8 English language proficiency, language used at home, language used with friends, length of stay Yes  
9 Age at migration, country of birth, country of smoking initiation Yes Bidimensional Acculturation Scale for Hispanics (4 items)
10    The Suinn-Lew Asian self-identity acculturation to US society scale (education and length of stay added here)
11 English language used at home, reading of English newspapers Yes  
12    Linguistic acculturation scale for Southeast Asians (7 items); two main constructs: English language proficiency, Chinese language proficiency
13 Length of stay Yes  
14 Legal immigrant status, length of stay No  
15 English language proficiency No  
16 Length of stay, English language proficiency No  
17 Length of stay, age at migration Yes  
18 Length of stay, country of birth No  
19 English language proficiency Yes  
20 Length of stay No  
21 Length of stay No  
22 Length of stay No  
23 Length of stay, country of birth No  
24 Social contacts with the host population, years of immigration Yes  
→ only used to characterise the study population, no further consideration
25 Years lived in host country before age of 16 No  
→ only used to characterise the study population, no further consideration
26 None
27 None
  1. *Studies are presented as numbers, further information on studies is specified in Table 4.