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Table 2 Association between smoking and dying from respiratory diseases among deceased adults (n=3,492)

From: A retrospective analysis of the association between tobacco smoking and deaths from respiratory and cardiovascular diseases in the Kassena-Nankana districts of Northern Ghana

Variable Unadjusted P-value # *Adjusted P-value #
OR (95% CI)   OR (95% CI)  
Smoking status     
Smokers 2.31 (1.9-2.9) <0.001 2.18 (1.6-2.9) <0.001
Non-smokers 1   1  
Age group     
15-29 1   1  
30-49 1.8 (1.2-2.7) <0.001 1.35 (0.8-2.0) 0.002
50-59 2.63 (1.8-3.9)   1.99 (1.3-3.0)  
Sex     
Female 1   1  
Male 1.51 (1.2-1.9) 0.006 0.98 (0.7-1.3) 0.904
Education     
No education 1.49 (0.9-2.2)    
Primary/JSS 1.52 (1.0-2.3) 0.117 NS NS
Secondary/tertiary 1    
Place of residence     
Rural 1.64 (1.1-2.3) 0.007 1.44 (0.9-2.2) 0.081
Urban 1   1  
Socio-economic status     
Poorest 1.61 (1.1-2.5)   1.31 (0.8-2.1)  
Poorer 1.62 (1.1-2.5) 0.009 1.26 (0.8-2.0) 0.216
Poor 2.0 (1.3-3.0)   1.54 (0.9-2.4)  
Less poor 1.29 (0.8-2.0)   1.08 (0.7-1.7)  
Least poor (rich) 1   1  
  1. #Overall p-value.
  2. NS – Not significant in bivariate analysis.
  3. *Adjusted for age, sex, place of residence and wealth index in separate models.
  4. Missing categories were not included in the regression models.