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Table 3 Association between smoking and dying from cardiovascular diseases among deceased adults (n = 3,492)

From: A retrospective analysis of the association between tobacco smoking and deaths from respiratory and cardiovascular diseases in the Kassena-Nankana districts of Northern Ghana

Variable Unadjusted P-value # *Adjusted P-value #
OR (95% CI)   OR (95% CI)  
Smoking status     
Smokers 1   1  
Non-smokers 1.02 (0.8-1.3) 0.817 1.16 (0.9-1.5) 0.246
Age group     
15-29 1   1  
30-49 2.58 (1.6-4.3) <0.001 2.59 (1.7-4.9) <0.001
50-59 5.45 (3.3-8.9)   5.51 (3.1-9.2)  
Sex     
Female 1.11 (0.9-1.4) 0.357 NS NS
Male 1    
Education     
No education 1.58 (1.2-2.0)   1.21 (0.9-1.6)  
Primary/JSS 1 0.004 1 0.080
Secondary/tertiary 1.70 (1.2-2.4)   1.49 (1.0-2.2)  
Place of residence     
Rural 1   1  
Urban 1.32 (0.9-1.8) 0.058 1.44 (1.1-1.9) 0.020
Socio-economic status     
Poorest 1.09 (0.8-1.6)    
Poorer 1.08 (0.8-1.5)    
Poor 1 0.151 NS NS
Less poor 1.22 (0.9-1.7)    
Least poor (rich) 1.56 (1.1-2.3)    
  1. #Overall p-value.
  2. NS – Not significant in bivariate analysis.
  3. *Adjusted for age, sex, place of residence and wealth index in separate models.