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Table 1 Characteristics according to active and secondhand smoking status in men

From: The association of active and secondhand smoking with oral health in adults: Japan public health center-based study

  Non-smoker Past smoker Current smoker P value
Without secondhand smoking With secondhand smoking
Home Other places Home and other places
(n = 59) (n = 30) (n = 33) (n = 37) (n = 158) (n = 235)
Age, mean (SD) 66.4 (5.23) 66.4 (4.94) 65.5 (4.69) 65.7 (5.03) 65.6 (6.34) 64.7 (5.85) 0.309
Education level, n (%)        
Low 21 (35.6) 11 (36.7) 10 (30.3) 6 (16.2) 41 (25.9) 72 (30.6) 0.029
Middle 33 (55.9) 19 (63.3) 15 (45.5) 25 (67.6) 79 (50.0) 114 (48.5)  
High 56 (8.5) 0 (0) 8 (24.2) 6 (16.2) 38 (24.1) 49 (20.9)  
History of diabetes, n (%)        
Yes 1 (1.7) 2 (6.7) 1 (3.0) 3 (8.1) 3 (1.9) 11 (4.7) 0.372
No 58 (98.3) 28 (93.3) 32 (97.0) 34 (91.9) 155 (98.1) 224 (95.4)  
BMI, mean (SD) 23.2 (2.28) 23.8 (2.74) 23.0 (2.55) 24.0 (3.37) 23.5 (2.38) 23.2 (2.64) 0.377
Alcohol consumption, n (%)        
Non or former drinkers 11 (18.6) 0 (0) 4 (12.1) 6 (16.2) 15 (9.5) 24 (10.2) 0.007
Less than weekly 8 (13.6) 0 (0) 2 (6.1) 1 (2.7) 8 (5.1) 9 (3.8)  
<150 g/week 4 (6.8) 2 (6.7) 3 (9.1) 10 (27.0) 17 (10.8) 22 (9.4)  
150-299 g/week 8 (13.6) 5 (16.7) 5 (15.2) 4 (10.8) 25 (15.8) 31 (13.2)  
300-449 g/week 6 (10.2) 11 (36.7) 5 (15.2) 1 (2.7) 28 (17.1) 41 (17.4)  
>450 g/week 22 (37.3) 12 (40.0) 14 (42.4) 15 (40.5) 65 (41.1) 108 (46.0)  
Perceived mental stress, n (%)        
Low 5 (8.5) 1 (3.3) 1 (3.0) 4 (10.8) 15 (9.5) 20 (8.5) 0.779
Moderate 40 (67.8) 21 (70.0) 20 (60.6) 22 (59.5) 88 (55.7) 138 (58.7)  
High 14 (23.7) 8 (26.7) 12 (36.4) 11 (29.7) 55 (34.8) 77 (32.8)  
Family dentist, n (%)        
Yes 49 (83.1) 28 (93.3) 30 (90.9) 31 (83.8) 135 (85.4) 203 (86.4) 0.752
No 10 (16.9) 2 (6.7) 3 (9.1) 6 (16.2) 23 (14.6) 32 (13.6)  
Oral hygiene, n (%)        
Good 5 (8.5) 5 (16.7) 6 (18.2) 3 (8.1) 24 (15.2) 22 (9.4) 0.534
Fair 38 (64.4) 18 (60.0) 22 (66.7) 27 (73.0) 96 (60.8) 148 (63.0)  
Poor 16 (27.1) 7 (23.3) 5 (15.2) 7 (18.9) 38 (24.1) 65 (27.7)  
  1. Combined cells for proper application of chi-square test