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Table 2 Characteristics according to active and secondhand smoking status in women

From: The association of active and secondhand smoking with oral health in adults: Japan public health center-based study

  Non-smoker Past smoker Current smoker P value
  Without secondhand smoking With secondhand smoking
Home Other places Home and other places
  (n = 131) (n = 328) (n = 19) (n = 111) (n = 8) (n = 15)
Age, mean (SD) 65.9 (5.10) 65.0 (5.98) 64.4 (6.18) 64.0 (5.45) 61.4 (5.01) 62.7 (5.37) 0.028
Education level, n (%)        
Low 59 (45.0) 112 (34.2) 4 (21.1) 27 (24.3) 1 (12.5) 3 (20.0) 0.001
Middle 51 (39.0) 174 (53.0) 10 (52.6) 62 (55.9) 2 (25.0) 9 (60.0)  
High 21 (16.0) 42 (12.8) 5 (26.3) 22 (19.8) 5 (62.5) 3 (20.0)  
History of diabetes, n (%)        
Yes 2 (1.5) 4 (1.2) 1 (5.3) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0.381
No 129 (98.5) 324 (98.8) 18 (94.7) 111 (100) 8 (100) 15 (100)  
BMI, mean (SD) 22.9 (2.61) 22.7 (2.87) 22.3 (2.78) 23.2 (2.99) 23.0 (1.59) 22.7 (2.74) 0.740
Alcohol consumption, n (%)        
Non or former drinkers 85 (64.9) 241 (73.5) 13 (68.4) 81 (73.0) 5 (62.5) 6 (40.0) 0.205
Less than weekly 21 (16.0) 41 (12.5) 3 (15.8) 10 (9.0) 1 (12.5) 3 (20.0)  
<150 g/week 14 (10.7) 27 (8.2) 1 (5.3) 10 (9.0) 1 (12.5) 3 (20.0)  
150-299 g/week 5 (3.8) 9 (2.7) 1 (5.3) 4 (3.6) 0 (0.0) 2 (13.3)  
300-449 g/week 4 (3.1) 7 (2.1) 0 (0.0) 5 (4.5) 1 (12.5) 0 (0.0)  
>450 g/week 2 (1.5) 3 (0.9) 1 (5.3) 1 (0.9) 0 (0.0) 1 (6.7)  
Perceived mental stress, n (%)        
Low 16 (12.2) 34 (10.4) 0 (0.0) 12 (10.8) 1 (12.5) 2 (13.3) 0.237
Moderate 90 (68.7) 216 (65.8) 12 (63.2) 64 (57.7) 3 (37.5) 10 (66.7)  
High 25 (19.1) 78 (23.8) 7 (36.8) 35 (31.5) 4 (50.0) 3 (20.0)  
Family dentist, n (%)        
Yes 121 (92.4) 299 (91.2) 17 (89.5) 97 (87.4) 7 (87.5) 12 (80.0) 0.405
No 10 (7.6) 29 (8.8) 2 (10.5) 14 (12.6) 1 (12.5) 3 (20.0)  
Oral hygiene, n (%)        
Good 17 (13.0) 45 (13.7) 3 (15.8) 20 (18.0) 2 (25.0) 2 (13.3) 0.715
Fair 93 (71.0) 222 (67.7) 12 (63.2) 76 (68.5) 5 (62.5) 8 (53.3)  
Poor 21 (16.0) 61 (18.6) 4 (21.0) 15 (13.5) 1 (12.5) 5 (33.3)  
  1. Combined cells for proper application of chi-square test