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Table 3 Prevalence of periodontal diseasea according to active and secondhand smoking status

From: The association of active and secondhand smoking with oral health in adults: Japan public health center-based study

  Non-smoker Past smoker Current smoker
Without secondhand smoking With secondhand smoking
Home Other places Home and other places
Men       
% (No. of cases/subjects) 16.9 (10/59) 27.0 (11/30) 18.2 (6/33) 35.1 (13/37) 24.1 (38/158) 37.9 (89/235)
Adjusted ORb (95 % CI) 1 2.84 (1.04-7.78) 1.11 (0.36-3.40) 2.70 (1.04-7.05) 1.58 (0.73-3.42) 3.11 (1.49-6.47)
Adjusted ORc (95 % CI) 1 3.14 (1.08-9.12) 1.31 (0.41-4.17) 3.61 (1.33-9.81) 1.81 (0.81-4.03) 3.31 (1.54-7.08)
Women       
% (No. of cases/subjects) 23.7 (31/131) 17.7 (58/328) 15.8 (3/19) 21.6 (24/111) 25.0 (2/8) 40.0 (6/15)
Adjusted ORb (95 % CI) 1 0.70 (0.43-1.14) 0.61 (0.17-2.24) 0.90 (0.49-1.66) 1.11 (0.21-5.80) 2.19 (0.72-6.69)
Adjusted ORc (95 % CI) 1 0.66 (0.40-1.10) 0.55 (0.14-2.11) 0.88 (0.46-1.65) 1.03 (0.18-5.85) 1.98 (0.62-6.35)
  1. a ≥ 1 sites with periodontal pocket ≥6 mm
  2. bAdjusted for age
  3. cAdjusted for age, education level, history of diabetes, BMI, alcohol consumption, perceived mental stress, presence of family dentist, and oral hygiene