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Table 2 Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) results for perceptions of e-cigarettes, thoughts about not using e-cigarettes, and behavioral intentions to use e-cigarettes

From: An experimental study of the effects of electronic cigarette warnings on young adult nonsmokers’ perceptions and behavioral intentions

  Perceived harms of e-cigarettes Perceived addictiveness of e-cigarettes Perceived harms of e-cigarettes relative to cigarettes Perceived addictiveness of e-cigarettes relative to cigarettes Thoughts about not using e-cigarettes Intentions to use e-cigarettes
  F P η2 F P η2 F P η2 F P η2 F P η2 F P η2
Main effects                   
 Ad/Warning condition 13.54 <.001 .060 10.35 <.001 .047 3.12 .045 .015 7.11 <.001 .032 81.57 <.001 .278 1.80 .167 .008
 E-cigarette brand 1.28 .279 .006 .20 .817 .001 .39 .677 .002 .95 .389 .004 1.50 .224 .007 .68 .505 .003
Interaction Effect                   
 Ad/Warning condition x .24 .918 .002 .83 .508 .008 .21 .933 .002 .59 .670 .006 2.29 .059 .021 .47 .758 .004
 E-cigarette brand
Covariates                   
 Ever used an e-cigarette 16.61 <.001 .038 12.32 <.001 .028 14.01 <.001 .032 9.87 .002 .023 15.09 <.001 .034 186.34 <.001 .305
 E-cigarette advertising exposure .58 .445 .001 1.36 .244 .003 2.18 .141 .005 1.19 .275 .003 .06 .810 <.001 .02 .891 <.001