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Table 4 Regression coefficients (β) and standard errors (SE) from mixed linear models for impulse oscillometry (IOS), fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) and exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) measurements, before and immediately after cigar smoking in healthy and mild asthmatic young smokers

From: Immediate effects of cigar smoking on respiratory mechanics and exhaled biomarkers; differences between young smokers with mild asthma and otherwise healthy young smokers

  β for time (SE) P β for mild asthma (SE) P β for smoking (SE) P β for interaction of smoking with time (SE) P
Z5 [kPa/(L/s)] 0.08 (0.04) 0.025 0.11 (0.02) <0.001 0.01 (0.02) 0.703 −0.05 (0.02) 0.041
R5 [kPa/(L/s)] 0.09 (0.03) 0.012 0.11 (0.02) <0.001 0.01 (0.02) 0.686 −0.05 (0.02) 0.024
R10 [kPa/(L/s)] 0.07 (0.03) 0.013 0.10 (0.02) <0.001 0.01 (0.02) 0.536 −0.04 (0.02) 0.023
R20 [kPa/(L/s)] 0.07 (0.03) 0.019 0.08 (0.02) <0.001 0.01 (0.01) 0.497 −0.04 (0.02) 0.038
fdr [kPa/(L/s)] 0.02 (0.02) 0.387 0.03 (0.01) 0.006 −0.003 (0.01) 0.737 −0.01 (0.01) 0.391
fres (Hz) 1.10 (1.31) 0.400 2.46 (0.76) 0.001 0.37 (0.58) 0.523 −0.52 (0.83) 0.530
X5 [kPa/(L/s)] −0.001 (0.01) 0.966 −0.03 (0.01) 0.001 −0.004 (0.01) 0.525 0.0004 (0.01) 0.964
X10 [kPa/(L/s)] −0.01 (0.02) 0.575 −0.03 (0.01) 0.001 0.001 (0.01) 0.927 0.004 (0.01) 0.713
X20 [kPa/(L/s)] −0.01 (0.02) 0.670 −0.02 (0.01) 0.062 0.01 (0.01) 0.534 −0.001 (0.01) 0.950
AX (kPa/L) 0.11 (0.15) 0.460 0.27 (0.10) 0.005 0.02 (0.07) 0.719 −0.05 (0.10) 0.614
FENO (ppb) −3.18 (4.03) 0.431 9.47 (2.42) <0.001 −2.06 (1.80) 0.253 1.77 (2.55) 0.488
eCO (ppm) 27.0 (2.36) <0.001 −1.21 (2.72) 0.093 −0.09 (1.01) 0.933 −13.4 (1.43) <0.001
  1. Significant changes from pre and post cigar smoking measurements were found for Z5, R5, R10, R20 and eCO. Also, a significant interaction effect of smoking with time was found for the aforementioned parameters, indicating that Z5, R5, R10, R20 and eCO increased significantly in both healthy and asthmatics, but only after smoking and not in control session