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Table 6 Factors associated with smokeless tobacco use, Borena zone, Oromia Regional State, Southern Ethiopia, 2015

From: Prevalence and factors that influence smokeless tobacco use among adults in pastoralist communities of Borena Zone, Ethiopia: mixed method study

Characteristics of respondents Current smokeless tobacco status COR (95% CL) Adjusted OR (95% CL)
Non users (n = 347) Users (n = 287)
No (%) No (%)
Age category <25 48 (13.8) 33 (11.5) 1  
25–30 55 (15.9) 44 (15.3) 1.16 (0.64,2.11)  
31–35 44 (12.7) 31 (10.8) 1.03 (0.54,1.94)  
36–40 63 (18.2) 49 (17.0) 1.13 (0.63,2.02)  
41–45 39 (11.2) 23 (8.0) .86 (0.44,1.69)  
46–50 33 (9.5) 32 (10.3) 1.41 (0.73,2.72)  
>50 65 (18.7) 75 (26.1) 1.68 (0.97,2.92)  
Sex Male 237 (68.3) 177 (61.7) 1  
Female 110 (31.7) 110 (38.3) 1.34 (0.96, 1.86)  
Religion Wakefata 167 (48.1) 232 (80.8) 1 1
Muslim 129 (37.2) 33 (11.5) .84 (.12, .28)* .21 (.13, .33)
Christian 51 (14.7) 22 (7.7) .31 (.18, .53)* .38 (.22, .67)
Ethnicity Oromo 346 (99.7) 284 (99.0) 1  
Others*@ 1 (0.3) 3 (1.0) 3.66 (.38, 35.31)  
Educational status of mothers Cannot read and write 267 (76.9) 235 (81.9) 1  
Read and write but no formal education 66 (19.0) 42 (14.6) .72 (.47, 1.11)  
At least primary 14 (4.0) 10 (3.5) .81 (.35,1.86)  
Current marital status Single 22 (6.3) 19 (6.6) .34 (.12, .98)  
Married 307 (88.5) 235 (81.9) .30 (.12, 0.72)  
Divorced 11 (3.2) 15 (5.2) .53 (.17, 1.71)  
Widowed 7 (2.0) 18 (6.3) 1  
Occupation Pastoralist 269 (77.5) 221 (77.0) 1  
Others**$ 78 (22.5) 66 (23.0) 1.03 (.71, 1.50)  
Income category 0–150 155 (44.7) 114 (39.7) 1  
151–650 149 (42.9) 142 (49.5) 0.91 (0.15, 5.51)  
651–1400 40 (11.5) 29 (10.1) 0.70 (0.12, 4.23)  
1401–2350 3 (0.9) 2 (0.7) 0.92 (0.14, 5.86)  
Attitude towards smokeless tobacco use Unfavorable 246 (70.9) 140 (48.8) 1 1
Favorable 101 (29.1) 147 (51.2) 2.56 (1.84, 3.55)* 2.12 (1.48, 3.04)
Knowledge about SLT health effect Insufficient knowledge 212 (61.1) 170 (59.2) 1  
Sufficient knowledge 135 (38.9) 117 (40.8) 1.08 (.79, 1.49)*  
Health risk perception Poor perception 188 (54.2) 184 (64.1) 1 1
Good perception 159 (45.8) 103 (35.9) .66 (.48, .91)* .49 (.34, .70)
Social norm Low social pressure 228 (65.7) 125 (43.6) 1 1
High social pressure 119 (34.3) 162 (56.4) 2.48 (1.80, 3.43)* 1.73 (1.21, 2.47)
  1. *statistically significant at p < 0.05
  2. @Amhara, konso
  3. $Agro pastoralist, merchants
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