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Table 1 Prevalence of smoking among upper secondary school students in Peninsular Malaysia

From: Smoking among school-going adolescents in selected secondary schools in Peninsular Malaysia- findings from the Malaysian Adolescent Health Risk Behaviour (MyaHRB) study

Variable Smoking Chi-square value p value
  Yes No   
  N(%) N(%)   
Gender
 Male 373(27.9) 963(72.1) 361.3 <0.001
 Female 35(2.4) 1413(97.6)  
Ethnicity
 Malay 372(17.2) 1812(82.8) 59.2 <0.001
 Chinese 18(4.6) 375(95.4)  
 Indian 10(5.1) 186(94.9)  
 Others 3(27.3) 8 (72.7)  
Academic Achievement
 Excellence 194(11.3) 1516(88.7) 51.7 <0.001
 Moderate 181(18.9) 779(81.1)  
 Unsatisfactory 32(32.4) 70(68.6)  
Marital status of parents
 Married 380(14.5) 2233(85.5) 0.01 0.79
 Divorced 23(15.3) 127(84.7)  
Level of self esteem
 High 192(16.3) 988(83.7) 6.37 0.012
 Low 189(12.8) 1288(87.2)  
Loneliness
 Always 37(21.3) 137(78.7) 6.52 0.01
 Sometimes 370(14.2) 2236(85.8)  
Number of parents Smoked
 None 209(11.1) 1670(88.9) 40.69 <0.001
 One 145(18.8) 627(81.2)  
 Both 8(42.1) 11(57.9)  
Number of Best friend/s
 None 10(9.3) 97(90.3) 2.56 0.27
 One 14(13.2) 91(86.8)  
 Two 380(14.8) 218(85.2)  
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