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Table 4 Univariate associations among participant characteristics and route of advertising exposure with e-cigarette perceived harm, addictiveness, and acceptability of use in bars

From: Associations of attitudes towards electronic cigarettes with advertisement exposure and social determinants: a cross sectional study

  Harm Addictiveness Acceptability
    x t n x t n yes no don’t know χ2
Gender   Male 3.98 14.80** 1796 5.15 12.96** 1780 1308 (57.1%) 798 (38.8%) 184 (8.1%) 152**
   Female 4.81   4127 5.90   4054 1482 (40.6%) 1790 (49.2%) 364 (10%)  
Race   White 4.39 6.91** 5065 5.61 0.01 4982 2280 (48.1%) 2055 (43.4%) 402 (8.5%) 21**
   NonWhite 4.87   858 5.61   852 509 (42.8%) 533 (44.8%) 147 (12.4%)  
e-Cigarette User 3.24 29.6** 1576 4.60 22.39** 1547 1284 (78.9%) 278 (17.1%) 65 (4%) 913**
   Non User 4.96   4347 5.98   4287 1506 (35%) 2310 (53.7%) 484 (11.3%)  
Smoking History            
  Individual Yes 3.30 22.46** 1147 4.86 13.17** 1117 930 (78.7%) 200 (17%) 51 (4.3%) 593**
   No 4.79   4776 5.79   4717 1860 (39.2%) 2388 (50.3%) 498 (10.5%)  
  Mother Yes 4.19 7.63** 1985 5.47 3.34** 1950 1081 (55.6%) 716 (36.7%) 146 (7.5%) 84**
   No 4.64   3936 5.67   3883 1708 (42.9%) 1871 (47%) 403 (10.1%)  
Seen Advertising on            
  Internet Yes 4.20 9.08** 2470 5.46 4.44** 2464 1395 (40.8%) 922 (36.8%) 186 (7.5%) 130**
   No 4.70   3453 5.72   3424 1395 (40.8%) 1666 (48.7%) 363 (10.6%)  
  TV Yes 4.36 5.06** 3130 5.53 2.97** 3092 1671 (52.6%) 1269 (34.9%) 239 (7.5%) 88**
   No 4.64   2823 5.70   2742 1119 (40.7%) 1319 (48%) 310 (11.3%)  
  Billboard Yes 4.25 3.43* 783 5.51 1.37 770 473 (58.6%) 293 (36.3%) 41 (5.1%) 55**
   No 4.53   5140 5.62   5064 2317 (45.3%) 2295 (44.8%) 508 (9.9%)  
  Retail Store Yes 4.18 8.49** 2149 5.45 4.06** 2124 1195 (56.0%) 790 (37.1%) 146 (6.9%) 110**
   No 4.66   3774 5.69   3710 1595 (42.0%) 1798 (47.4%) 402 (10.6%)  
  Vehicle Yes 4.34 1.57 461 5.53 0.76 447 276 (57.4%) 176 (36.8%) 27 (5.8%) 24**
   No 4.50   5462 5.61   5387 2514 (46.2%) 2411 (44.3%) 521 (9.6%)  
  Event Yes 3.94 7.21** 686 5.32 3.64** 678 422 (61.8%) 228 (33.4%) 32 (4.8%) 70**
   No 4.56   5237 5.64   5158 2368 (45.2%) 2360 (45%) 516 (9.9%)  
  Paper Yes 4.30 4.89** 2063 5.54 1.02 2029 1109 (54%) 805 (39.2%) 140 (6.8%) 66**
   No 4.59   3860 5.64   3805 1681 (43.4%) 1783 (46%) 409 (10.6%)  
  1. *p < 0.05, ** p <0.01