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Fig. 2 | Tobacco Induced Diseases

Fig. 2

From: Smoking exposure, loss of forced expiratory volume in one second and the risk of lung cancer among patients with malignant disease who present with cardiac or pulmonary symptoms: a cross-sectional study

Fig. 2

Impact of smoking exposure (pack years, x axis) and FEV1 loss (% of the predicted value, y axis) on the patient’s predicted risk of lung cancer (z axis, vertical axis) as determined by a risk prognosis model based on multiple logistic regression analysis. This model allows to estimate the patient’s risk of lung cancer (z) from the number of pack years (x) and FEV1 loss (y) using the following formula: \( \mathrm{z}=\frac{1}{\left(1+{e}^{-\left(-2.2296+0.0312* x+0.0183* y\right)}\right)} \). The data from all patients were included in the regression analysis. The x and y axes of the figure were limited to 0 to 70 pack years (95th percentile) and −22% to 56% of the predicted value (5th−95th percentile), respectively, to minimize disproportionate effects of extreme values on the graph. The graph has a color code starting with green for a low predicted risk and ending with bluish-purple for a high predicted risk for lung cancer. A visualization tool that allows a three-dimensional display of the relationship between smoking exposure, FEV1 loss and the risk of lung cancer from various angles is available on the internet via http://www.ortenau-klinikum.de/fileadmin/resources/downloads/dr-wieshammer/smoking-exposure-3d-graph.exe

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