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Fig. 3 | Tobacco Induced Diseases

Fig. 3

From: Smoking exposure, loss of forced expiratory volume in one second and the risk of lung cancer among patients with malignant disease who present with cardiac or pulmonary symptoms: a cross-sectional study

Fig. 3

Differences between the risks of lung cancer (Δ; solid lines) at an FEV1 loss of 56% of the predicted value (95th percentile) and −22% of the predicted value (5th percentile) for smoking exposures from 0 to 70 pack years (95th percentile; left panel) and over the whole range (0–200 pack years; right panel). The difference between the two risks (Δ) was normalized (normalized difference in risk; Δnorm; dotted lines) to the maximum possible increase in risk for a given smoking exposure using the formula: \( {\Delta}_{\mathrm{norm}} = \frac{\Delta}{\left[1\hbox{--}\ \mathrm{risk}\ \mathrm{a}\mathrm{t}\ \mathrm{a}\ \mathrm{FEV}1\ \mathrm{loss}\ \mathrm{of}\ \left(-22\ \%\ \mathrm{of}\ \mathrm{t}\mathrm{he}\ \mathrm{predicted}\ \mathrm{value}\right)\right]} \)

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