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Table 1 Factors associated with life satisfaction amongst employed individuals in 28 European Union Member States (N = 11,788)

From: The association between occupational secondhand smoke exposure and life satisfaction among adults in the European Union

  Life satisfaction
Outcome: life satisfaction Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Occupational SHS exposure
 No (Ref.) 1.00 1.00
 Yes 0.70 (0.63 – 0.79) 0.72 (0.60 – 0.87)
Smoking status/occupational SHS exposure
 Never smoker * exposed to SHS(Ref.) 1.00 1.00
 Ex-smoker * exposed to SHS 0.91 (0.67 – 1.26) 0.99 (0.69 – 1.41)
 Light smoker * exposed to SHS 1.39 (0.86 – 2.25) 1.57 (0.92 – 2.68)
 Moderate smoker * exposed to SHS 1.50 (1.09 – 2.06) 1.30 (0.92 – 1.85)
 Heavy smoker * exposed to SHS 1.26 (0.92 – 1.72) 1.21 (0.86 – 1.70)
Smoking status
 Never smoker (Ref.) 1.00 1.00
 Ex-smoker 1.04 (0.90 – 1.21) 1.09 (0.89 – 1.34)
 Light smoker (<10 cigarettes per day) 0.76 (0.61 – 0.94) 0.71 (0.53 – 0.96)
 Moderate smoker (10–20 cigarettes per day) 0.66 (0.57 – 0.77) 0.76 (0.62 – 0.93)
 Heavy smoker (≥20 cigarettes per day) 0.46 (0.39 – 0.54) 0.60 (0.47 – 0.76)
Age (years)
  ≥ 55 (Ref.) 1.00 1.00
 40-54 1.03 (0.90 – 1.18) 1.03 (0.88 – 1.20)
 25-39 1.53 (1.21 – 1.77) 1.56 (1.31 – 1.86)
 18-24 1.39 (1.07 – 1.80) 1.64 (1.20 – 2.24)
Gender
 Female (Ref.) 1.00 1.00
 Male 1.04 (0.93 – 1.15) 1.05 (0.93 – 1.18)
Area of residence
 Rural (Ref.) 1.00 1.00
 Urban 1.01 (0.90 – 1.13) 0.91 (0.79 – 1.03)
Difficulty in paying bills
 Never/Almost never (Ref.) 1.00 1.00
 Time to time/Most of the time 0.22 (0.19 – 0.24) 0.28 (0.25 – 0.32)
Age when full-time education was stopped (years)
  ≤ 15 (Ref.) 1.00 1.00
 16-19 1.92 (1.59 – 2.31) 1.35 (1.10 – 1.66)
 20+ 3.43 (2.82 – 4.17) 1.54 (1.23 – 1.94)
Marital status
 Married/Cohabitation (Ref.) 1.00 1.00
 Unmarried 0.60 (0.52 – 0.70) 0.57 (0.48 – 0.67)
 Divorced/Separated/Widowed 0.33 (0.29 – 0.39) 0.45 (0.38 – 0.53)
Social class
 Working class (Ref.) 1.00 1.00
 Lower Middle class 1.27 (1.10 – 1.47) 1.10 (0.94 – 1.29)
 Middle class 3.57 (3.14 – 4.06) 2.38 (2.05 – 2.76)
 Upper middle/higher class 7.09 (5.20 – 9.67) 3.49 (2.48 – 4.90)
Occupation
 Manual workers (Ref.) 1.00 1.00
 Other non-manual workers 1.64 (1.44 – 1.86) 1.16 (0.99 – 1.35)
 Self-employed 1.58 (1.36 – 1.85) 1.17 (0.97 – 1.40)
 Managers 2.43 (2.08 – 2.84) 1.14 (0.94 – 1.39)
Tobacco Control Scale Smoke-free score (per 1-point increase) 1.09 (1.00 – 1.18) 1.06 (0.99 – 1.13)
Smoking prevalence (per a 1% increase) 0.89 (0.85 – 0.94) 0.93 (0.89 – 0.98)
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