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Table 1 Different method used for induction of animal model of COPD and various measured parameters in each model

From: Experimental animal models for COPD: a methodological review

Induce. Animal Method Measured parameters Ref.
    TR Path Infl  
Cigarette Mice - 2 × 75 min/day, 5 day/week, for 1–12 weeks     [1]
- 2 × 30 min/day, 3 consecutive days, whole body exposure     [26]
-12 Cig × 2 × 50 min/day, 5 day/week, for 8–24 weeks, whole body exposure   C [30]
-150 ± 15 mg/m3 CS of TSP, 4 h/day, 5 day/week, whole body exposure     [27, 28]
-150 mg/m3 CS of TPM, 3 h/day, 5 day/week, for 6 months     [136]
- 5 Cig (12 mg of tar, 0.9 mg of nicotine, without filter) × 4/day, 30 min rest, 5 day/week, for 24 weeks     [118]
-250 and 500 mg/m3 CS of TPM, 2 × 50 min/day, 3 consecutive days, nose only and whole body exposure    M [22]
- 5/day, 5 day/week, for 6 months     [142]
- 5 h/day, 5 days/week, for 6 months, whole body exposure   C [29]
- 150 ± 15 mg/m3 CS of TSP, 4 h/day, 5 day/week, for 6 months     [143]
- 12 Cig × 2 × 75 min/day, 5 day/week, for 1–12 weeks, nose only exposure   C/M [32]
- 3 Cig (with filter), 5 day/week, for 6 months, nose only exposure   C [33]
- 10 Cig (without filter), 512.6 mg/m3 CS of TPM, 2 × 35 ml puffs/min, 50 min/day, 5 day/week, for 22, 24, 45 days, nose only exposure    C [34]
- 3 Cig (12 mg of tar, 0.9 mg of nicotine)/day, 5 day/week, for 4 or 7 months In vivo    [120]
-103.36 ± 1.09 mg/m3 CS of TPM, 2 × 70- cm3 puffs/min, 6 h/day, 7 day/week, whole body exposure     [31]
Rat -8 Cig (14 mg of tar, 1.2 mg of nicotine, 15 mg of CO) × 2 × 30 min/day, 3–4 h interval between them, for first 2 weeks and 15 Cig (14 mg of tar, 1.2 mg of nicotine, 15 mg of CO) × 3 × 30 min/day, 3–4 h interval between them, from the third to the twelfth week   M [2]
-12 Cig (10 mg of tar, 0.8 mg of nicotine, 10 mg of CO, with filter) × 3     [37]
-20 Cig × 2/day, 4–5 h interval between them, for 4 months   C [38]
- 80–90 mg/m3 CS of TSP, 1 × 35 ml puffs (2-s duration)/min, 6 h/day, 3 day/week, for 3 days or 4 weeks or 12 weeks, whole body exposure     [39]
- 10 min/day, for 7 weeks     [40]
-1 × 35 ml puffs (2-s duration)/min, 6 h/day, 3 day, whole body exposure    C [41]
-Cig (25 mg tar, 1.4 mg nicotine) × 2 × 1 h/day, 7 day/week, for 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 36 weeks   C [42]
Guinea pig -1–5 Cig (5 mg nicotine, 6 mg tar, with filter), 2 × 20 ml puffs/Cig/min, 8–9 min/Cig/day, 10 min interval between cigarettes, 5 or 6 day/week, for 3 consecutive months, nose only exposure In vitro C/M [50,51,52,53]
-1–5 Cig (5 mg nicotine, 6 mg tar, without filter), 2 × 20 ml puffs/Cig/min, 8–9 min/Cig/day, 10 min interval between cigarettes, 5 or 6 day/week, for 3 consecutive months, nose only exposure In vitro   [54,55,56,57,58]
-4 Cig (5.3 ± 0.1 mg/l concentration of CS), 30 min/day, 7 day/week     [144]
-10 Cig, 2 × 20 ml puffs/min, 8–9 min/Cig/day,10 min rest, for 1–60 days     [13, 145]
- 10 Cig (without filter)/day,5 day/week, for1–12 months     [44]
- 7 Cig (without filter)/day, 5 day/week, for 3–6 months     [13, 146]
-5 Cig/day, 5 day/week, for 6 months     [13, 147, 148]
- 2 h/day, 5 day/week, for 24 weeks     [13, 149]
Dog -2–7 Cig (0.27 mg tar, 3.25 mg nicotine, without filter)/day, 2 × 35 ml puffs/Cig/20 s, 7 day/week, for 2–4 months     [62]
-12 Cig/day, 7 day/week, for 5 months     [150]
-10 Cig (20 mg tar, 1.2 mg nicotine, without filter)/day, 2.5 h/day, 5 day/week, for 6 or 10 months     [59, 151]
  Monkey - 6 h/day, 5 day/week, for 7 months   C [64, 65]
LPS Mice -IN 0.3 mg/kg of LPS, animals were killed 24 h after the challenge to LPS     [26]
- IN 7 μg of LPS, 1 day/week, for 4 consecutive weeks   C [77]
- intrapulmonary instillation, 0.5 mg/kg; volume =100 μL of LPS    M [79, 80]
Guinea pig -IN 200 mL of LPS (5 mg/mL in sterile saline), twice/week, for 12 consecutive weeks     [69]
-IN 100 μL of LPS (10 mg/ml in sterile saline), twice/week, for 12 consecutive weeks   C [77, 82]
Rat - aerosolized LPS, 30 min/day   C/M [81]
Elastase Mice - IN 1.2 U of PPE, 1 day/week, for 4 consecutive weeks   C [77]
- IT 2 U of PPE/100 g body wt in 100 μl saline     [95]
Rat - IT 28 U of PPE/100 g body wt     [96]
- IT 55 U of PPE/100 g body wt in 0.5 ml saline     [97]
- IT 0.55 U of PPE/100 g body wt in 0.7 ml or 0.3 ml of 0.15 M NaCl    M [98]
Hamster - IT 55 U of PPE/100 g body wt in 0.3 ml saline     [97]
- IT 0.55 U of PPE/100 g body wt in 0.7 ml or 0.3 ml of 0.15 M NaCl    M [98]
Combination Inducers Mice - IN 1.2 U of PPE, on day 1 and IN 7 μg of LPS on day 4, for 4 consecutive weeks   C [77]
Rat -2 × 30 min/day exposure to CS, for 2 days and on 3 day exposure to aerosolized LPS for 30 min; 5 h after LPS exposure, exposure to CS for 30 min    C/M [81]
  1. IT intra tracheal, IN intranasal, Ref. references, Cig cigarette, h hours, Sec second, CS cigarette smoke, CO carbon monoxide, wt weight, LPS lipopolysaccharide, PPE porcine pancreatic elastase, TSP total suspended particles, TPM total particulate matter, TR tracheal responsiveness, Path lung pathology, Infl inflammation, C cell, M mediators
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