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Table 2 Lung pathology and tracheal responsiveness evaluation in animal model of COPD

From: Experimental animal models for COPD: a methodological review

Parameters Animals Methods Ref
Lung Pathology Mice -Chronic lung inflammation, infiltration of cells in the parenchyma, mucosal secretion, ticking of airway epithelium, alveolar enlargement, airway remodeling, goblet cell hyperplasia [1, 77]
- Emphysematous destruction, parenchymal inflammation, mucus hyper secretion, airway remodeling [29, 30, 32, 64, 118, 119]
- Increased wall thickness and airspace size [33, 120]
Rat - Increasing of bronchiole and arteriole wall thickness, bronchiole stenosis, increased alveolar size [2]
- Airway resistance, respiratory system resistance, tissue damping, tissue elastance, increased respiratory system compliance [37]
- Airspace enlargement, fragmentation of alveolar spaces, inflammation [97, 121]
- Elevation of neutrophils, mucus, oedema, lung inflammation in lung and/or bronchoalveolar lavage [81]
- Increased wall thickness, airway narrowing, peribronchiolar inflammation, inflammatory cell infiltration, enlargement of alveolar airspaces, destruction of septal walls of alveoli and pulmonary bullae [38]
- Bronchial airway epithelium injury, neutrophil infiltration [39]
- Hyperplasia of bronchial epithelial cells, hypersecretion of mucus, peribronchial fibrosis [42]
Guinea pig - Pulmonary inflammation and tissue remodeling [82]
- Increased interalveolar septum, increased lymphatic tissue in lung parenchyma, destruction of alveolar wall, emphysema in the lung, intra-alveolar bleeding [50, 51, 54,55,56,57]
- Airway and parenchymal neutrophilia, increased goblet cell numbers, elevation of lung hydroxyproline content, increasing of airway wall collagen and airspace size [69]
TR In vivo Mice - Inhaled Mch: (6, 12, 25, and 50 mg/ml, 1 min, measuring Penh by WBPle after 10 min [31]
In vitro Guinea pig - TC preparation; Mch (10 -7 to 10 -5 mM) every 2 min, measuring EC50 using CRC [52]
- TC preparation; Mch (10 nM to 5 mM) every 2 min, measuring EC50 using CRC [56]
- TC preparation; Mch (10 -7 to 10 -2 mM) every 3 min, measuring EC50 using CRC [58]
- TC preparation; histamine (0.1 μM –10 mM) every 2 min, measuring EC50 using CRC [54, 57]
- TC preparation; isoprenaline (10 nmol/L to 100 μmol/L) every 2 min, measuring EC50 using CRC [55]
  1. WBPle whole-body plethysmograph, Mch methacholine, TC tracheal chain, EC50 effective concentration causing 50% of maximum response (MR), CRC concentration response curve, TR tracheal responsiveness
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