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Table 1 Sample characteristics (n = 406) for waterpipe users in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 2015

From: The use of planned behavior theory in predicting cigarette smoking among Waterpipe smokers

  Total Exclusive Waterpipe Users (n = 288) Waterpipe & Cigarettes Users (n = 118)  
  Mean ± SD or n (%) Mean ± SD or n (%) Mean ± SD or n (%) p-value
Age 26.97 ± 6.82 27.82 ± 7.02 24.89 ± 5.82 < .001
Waterpipe initiation age 20.99 ± 4.49 21.72 ± 4.71 19.20 ± 3.30 <.001
Cigarettes initiation age 19.72 ± 4.20 NA 19.72 ± 4.20 NA
No. of cigarettes smoked/week 22.21 ± 39.18 NA 22.21 ± 39.18 NA
Years of waterpipe use 5.98 ± 5.35 6.10 ± 5.44 5.69 ± 5.13 .483
Waterpipe frequency use/week 7.62 ± 6.92 7.70 ± 6.71 7.45 ± 7.45 .742
Waterpipe session duration (min)a 88.38 ± 45.34 86.67 ± 44.88 92.56 ± 46.39 .238
TPB Constructs
 Attitude 1.98 ± 1.12 1.72 ± .97 2.60 ± 1.21 < .001
 Subjective Norms 3.05 ± 1.17 2.92 ± 1.14 3.38 ± 1.19 < .001
 Perceived Control 3.67 ± 1.13 3.32 ± .94 4.51 ± 1.10 < .001
 Intentions 2.22 ± 1.69 1.58 ± 1.07 3.79 ± 1.87 < .001
Marital Status
 Single 267 (65.8%) 170 (59.0%) 97 (82.2%) < .001
 Others 139 (34.2%) 118 (41.0%) 21 (17.8%)
Education Level
 High school or less 194 (47.8%) 127 (44.1%) 67 (56.8%) .020
 College/ post graduate 212 (52.2%) 161 (55.9%) 51 (43.2%)
Work Status
 Government employee 139 (34.2%) 108 (37.5%) 31 (26.3%) .002
 Non-government employee 101 (24.9%) 80 (27.8%) 21 (17.8%)
 Self-employed 22 (5.4%) 15 (5.2%) 7 (5.9%)
 Student 125 (30.8%) 75 (26.0%) 50 (42.4%)
 Unemployed 19 (4.7%) 10 (3.5%) 9 (7.6%)
Income/month
 SR 3000 or Less 133 (32.8%) 76 (26.4%) 57 (48.3%) < .001
 SR 3001 to 6000 70 (17.2%) 48 (16.7%) 22 (18.6%)
 SR 6001 to 9000 75 (18.5%) 55 (19.1%) 20 (16.9%)
 More than SR 9000 128 (31.5%) 109 (37.8%) 19 (16.1%)
Exercise
 Never 117 (28.8%) 73 (25.3%) 44 (37.3%) .095
 1 to 2 times per week 184 (45.3%) 135 (46.9%) 49 (41.5%)
 3 to 4 times per week 62 (15.3%) 46 (16.0%) 16 (13.6%)
 5 or more times per week 43 (10.6%) 34 (11.8%) 9 (7.6%)
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