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Table 3 Associations between TPB’s Constructs and other Variables (n = 406) for Waterpipe Smokers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 2015

From: The use of planned behavior theory in predicting cigarette smoking among Waterpipe smokers

  Attitude (Mean ± SD) Subjective Norm (Mean ± SD) Perceived Control (Mean ± SD) Intentions (Mean ± SD)
Marital status
 Single 2.11 ± 1.16a 3.16 ± 1.09a 3.79 ± 1.13a 2.44 ± 1.67a
 Others 1.73 ± .99b 2.84 ± 1.30b 3.43 ± 1.08b 1.80 ± 1.45b
Education Levels
 High school or less 2.07 ± 1.14a 3.18 ± 1.11a 3.77 ± 1.18a 2.35 ± 1.75a
 College & post graduate 1.89 ± 1.09a 2.93 ± 1.22a 3.57 ± 1.08a 2.10 ± 1.61a
Work Status
 Government employee 1.84 ± 1.11a 3.03 ± 1.24a 3.45 ± 1.10a 2.04 ± 1.56a
 Non-government employee 1.81 ± .97a 2.98 ± 1.14a 3.58 ± 1.02a,b 2.02 ± 1.58a
 Self-employed 1.97 ± 1.01a 2.72 ± 1.24a 3.93 ± 1.49a,b 2.75 ± 2.32a
 Student 2.23 ± 1.21a 3.13 ± 1.10a 3.89 ± 1.12b 2.42 ± 1.68a
 Unemployed 2.22 ± 1.12a 3.45 ± 1.18a 3.93 ± 1.10a,b 2.71 ± 2.04a
Monthly Income
 SR 3000 or Less 2.21 ± 1.20a 3.21 ± 1.11a 3.95 ± 1.12a 2.51 ± 1.78a
 SR 3001 to 6000 1.94 ± 1.02a,b 3.29 ± 1.12a 3.54 ± 1.17a,b 2.36 ± 1.80a,b
 SR 6001 to 9000 1.89 ± 1.07a,b 3.11 ± 1.12a,b 3.71 ± 1.08a,b 2.14 ± 1.65a,b
 More than SR 9000 1.81 ± 1.08b 2.73 ± 1.24b 3.42 ± 1.08b 1.90 ± 1.48b
Exercise
 Never 2.04 ± 1.10a 3.00 ± 1.16a 3.84 ± 1.22a 2.64 ± 1.97a
 1 to 2 times per week 2.06 ± 1.16a 3.05 ± 1.15a 3.68 ± 1.07a,b 2.10 ± 1.57b
 3 to 4 times per week 1.82 ± 1.01a 3.02 ± 1.15a 3.59 ± 1.08a,b 2.24 ± 1.62a,b
 5 or more times per week 1.68 ± 1.07a 3.24 ± 1.35a 3.25 ± 1.04b 1.56 ± 1.03b
  1. For the means, values within each column not sharing the same subscript are significantly different at an alpha .05
  2. SR = Saudi Riyal ($1 = SR 3.75).
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