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Table 2 Attribution of causal role of smoking in smoking-related disease (%) among Estonian physicians by gender, 1982–2014

From: Physicians’ views on the role of smoking in smoking-related diseases: findings from cross-sectional studies from 1982–2014 in Estonia

Statement 1982 2002 2014
Male Female Male Female Male Female
  n = 850 n = 2654 n = 465 n = 2229 n = 518 n = 2347
Ischaemic heart disease (IHD)
 A major cause 4.9 4.8 8.4 7.2 14.7 11.4
 One of the causes 79.8 79.3 88.2 89.1 83.8 86.6
 Probably not a cause 5.5 4.6 1.9 1.9 0.6 0.9
 Not a cause 2.5 1.7 0.4 0.1 0.6 0.1
 Cannot say 7.3 9.6 1.1 1.7 0.4 1.0
Lung cancer
 A major cause 12.5 13.5 30.3 32.7 37.6 33.6
 One of the causes 77.3 75.1 68.0 66.4 61.2 65.6
 Probably not a cause 2.2 2.4 1.3 0.5 0.8 0.4
 Not a cause 1.9 1.3 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.1
 Cannot say 6.1 7.8 0.2 0.5 0.2 0.3
Chronic bronchitis
 A major cause 24.4 23.0 33.6 35.9 38.6 40.3
 One of the causes 70.4 70.9 65.2 63.2 60.4 58.9
 Probably not a cause 1.5 0.9 0.9 0.5 0.4 0.3
 Not a cause 1.1 0.9 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.2
 Cannot say 2.7 4.3 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.3
Total 100 100 100 100 100 100
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