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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of recruitment sites and p-value for difference between sites, CRONICAS Study, Peru, 2010

From: Low cigarette smoking prevalence in peri-urban Peru: results from a population-based study of tobacco use by self-report and urine cotinine

  Lima Tumbes Urban Puno Rural Puno p-value
n (%) 1004 (33.7) 966 (32.4) 503 (16.9) 506 (17.0)  
Age, median (IQR) 54.7 (45.4–64.1) 54.7 (44.7–64.6) 54.8 (44.9–64.4) 54.8 (45.1–63.9) 0.82
Male, n (%) 492 (49.0) 483 (50.0) 249 (49.5) 239 (47.4) 0.82
Daily use of biomass fuels, n (%) 60 (6.0) 221 (23.4) 25 (4.8) 483 (96.6) <0.001
Education in years, n (%)      <0.001
 Primary or Less 424 (42.2) 524 (54.3) 72 (14.3) 318 (62.9)  
 Secondary 403 (40.1) 296 (30.7) 139 (27.6) 158 (31.2)  
 Higher than Secondary 177 (17.6) 145 (15.0) 292 (58.1) 30 (5.9)  
Wealth Index, n (%)      <0.001
 Low 121 (12.1) 311 (32.3) 120 (23.9) 356 (70.4)  
 Medium 366 (36.5) 393 (40.9) 129 (25.7) 136 (26.9)  
 High 517 (51.5) 258 (26.8) 254 (50.5) 14 (2.8)  
Smoking, n (%)      <0.001
 Non-smoking 855 (85.2) 843 (87.4) 447 (88.9) 469 (92.7)  
 Occasional 116 (11.6) 68 (7.1) 45 (9.0) 6 (7.1)  
 Daily 33 (3.3) 54 (5.6) 11 (2.2) 1 (0.2)  
Pack-years (ever smokers), median (IQR) 0.1 (0.0–0.8) 0.5 (0.1–4.6) 0.1 (0.0–1.2) 0.1 (0.0–0.3) <0.001
  1. Bold indicates significance at p = 0.05. Differences estimated by t-tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum, or Chi-squared tests
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