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Table 3 Prevalence and means of chronic disease indicators at baseline and 40 month follow up, CRONICAS Study, multiple sites in Peru, 2010

From: Low cigarette smoking prevalence in peri-urban Peru: results from a population-based study of tobacco use by self-report and urine cotinine

Outcome (Prevalence) N Smoking Category Baseline Second Follow-Up Adj. Odds Ratioa p-value
Hypertension, % 2583 Non-Smoking 27.2 32.2 --- ---
   Occasional 19.3 24.0 0.86 0.75
   Daily 31.9 29.7 1.46 0.60
Diabetes, % 2581 Non-Smoking 5.4 7.8 --- ---
   Occasional 3.9 6.0 0.82 0.78
   Daily 3.3 8.8 1.31 0.73
Stroke, % 2583 Non-Smoking 0.4 0.5 --- ---
   Occasional 0.4 0.4 1.76 0.78
   Daily 1.1 1.1 5.62 0.44
Cardiovascular Disease, % 2583 Non-Smoking 5.0 7.3 --- ---
   Occasional 4.3 5.2 1.44 0.58
   Daily 8.8 13.2 10.24 0.001
Overweight, % 2541 Non-Smoking 73.6 75.0 --- ---
   Occasional 74.6 77.6 1.08 0.90
   Daily 64.8 71.4 0.23 0.09
Obese, % 2541 Non-Smoking 29.3 30.1 --- ---
   Occasional 24.1 25.9 0.30 0.14
   Daily 20.9 24.2 0.09 0.035
Outcome (Mean) N Smoking Category Baseline Second Follow-Up Adj. Difference in Meana p-value
Systolic Blood Pressure (mmHg) 2543 Non-Smoking 116.8 119.2 --- ---
   Occasional 118.2 120.1 2.02 0.06
   Daily 121.2 123.2 0.98 0.54
Body Mass Index (kg/m2) 2541 Non-Smoking 27.9 28.1 --- ---
   Occasional 27.5 27.9 −0.06 0.86
   Daily 27.0 27.5 −0.74 0.11
HDL (mg/dL) 2411 Non-Smoking 41.2 45.7 --- ---
   Occasional 41.3 44.5 1.95 0.013
   Daily 40.6 43.6 0.83 0.49
LDL (mg/dL) 2410 Non-Smoking 127.7 120.9 --- ---
   Occasional 125.2 116.5 −1.24 0.58
   Daily 125.8 118.7 −1.46 0.67
Total Cholesterol (mg/dL) 2411 Non-Smoking 201.4 198.4 --- ---
   Occasional 198.4 192.5 −0.92 0.73
   Daily 196.2 194.4 −2.88 0.47
Triglycerides (mg/dL) 2411 Non-Smoking 163.2 159.0 --- ---
   Occasional 159.5 157.5 −9.22 0.15
   Daily 148.9 160.5 −12.52 0.19
HOMA-IR 2410 Non-Smoking 4.6 5.4 --- ---
   Occasional 5.3 5.4 0.86 0.007
   Daily 4.2 5.3 −0.15 0.75
Framingham Score 2376 Non-Smoking 10.8 11.4 --- ---
   Occasional 12.8 11.1 3.26 <0.001
   Daily 13.6 13.5 3.57 <0.001
Post-Bronchodilator Forced Vital Capacity (L) 2278 Non-Smoking 3.42 3.33 --- ---
   Occasional 4.18 4.08 0.05 0.17
   Daily 3.82 3.77 −0.07 0.21
Post-Bronchodilator Forced Expiratory Volume in One Second (L) 2278 Non-Smoking 2.74 2.66 --- ---
   Occasional 3.33 3.24 0.02 0.47
   Daily 3.10 2.99 −0.03 0.53
  1. Bold indicates significant results. aAdjusted for age, sex, field site, and wealth index
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