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Table 1 Distribution of selected characteristics in 1354 parent–child pairs, Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study, Japan

From: Secondhand smoke exposure and risk of wheeze in early childhood: a prospective pregnancy birth cohort study

Variable No. (%) or mean ± SD
Baseline characteristics
 Region of residence
  Fukuoka Prefecture 783 (57.8)
  Other than Fukuoka Prefecture in Kyushu 442 (32.6)
  Okinawa Prefecture 129 (9.5)
 No. of living children already born to same mother
  0 541 (40.0)
  1 543 (40.1)
   ≥ 2 270 (19.9)
 Maternal education, years
   < 13 293 (21.6)
  13 − 14 455 (33.6)
   ≥ 15 606 (44.8)
 Paternal education, years
   < 13 409 (30.2)
  13 − 14 198 (14.6)
   ≥ 15 747 (55.2)
 Household income, yen/year
   < 4,000,000 454 (33.5)
  4,000,000 − 5,999,999 497 (36.7)
   ≥ 6,000,000 403 (29.8)
 Maternal history of asthma 179 (13.2)
 Maternal history of atopic eczema 246 (18.2)
 Maternal history of allergic rhinitis 564 (41.7)
 Paternal history of asthma 147 (10.9)
 Paternal history of atopic eczema 133 (9.8)
 Paternal history of allergic rhinitis 374 (27.6)
Characteristics at follow-up surveys
 Male sex 646 (47.7)
 Birth weight, mean ± SD, g 3002.3 ± 395.5
 Breastfeeding duration, mo
   < 6 156 (11.5)
   ≥ 6 1198 (88.5)
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