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Table 2 ORs and 95% CIs for wheeze according to maternal smoking during pregnancy and postnatal SHS exposure at home, Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study, Japan

From: Secondhand smoke exposure and risk of wheeze in early childhood: a prospective pregnancy birth cohort study

  Wheeze in a previous year   
  Risk (%) Crude OR (95% CI) Adjusted ORa (95% CI)
Maternal smoking status
 None 330/1243 (26.6%) 1.00 1.00
 First trimester only 21/60 (35.0%) 1.49 (0.85–2.54) 1.56 (0.87–2.74)
 Second and/or third trimesters but not throughout 3/11 (27.3%) 1.04 (0.23–3.61) 1.23 (0.26–4.44)
 Throughout 19/40 (47.5%) 2.50 (1.32–4.72) 2.24 (1.14–4.36)
Postnatal living with at least one household smoker
 No 195/753 (25.9%) 1.00 1.00
 Yes 178/601 (29.6%) 1.20 (0.95–1.53) 1.17 (0.91–1.51)
  1. aAdjustment for region of residence at baseline, number of children at baseline, maternal and paternal education levels, household income, maternal and paternal history of asthma, atopic eczema, and allergic rhinitis, infant’s birth weight, infant’s sex, and breastfeeding duration
  2. Abbreviations: CI confidence interval, OR odds ratio, SHS secondhand smoke
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