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Table 3 Additive effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy and postnatal SHS exposure at home, Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study, Japan

From: Secondhand smoke exposure and risk of wheeze in early childhood: a prospective pregnancy birth cohort study

   Wheeze in a previous year   
Maternal smoking during pregnancy Postnatal living with at least one household smoker Risk (%) Crude OR (95% CI) Adjusted ORa (95% CI)
No No 190/732 (26.0%) 1.00 1.00
Yes No 5/21 (23.8%) 0.89 (0.29–2.31) 0.96 (0.30–2.59)
No Yes 140/511 (27.4%) 1.08 (0.83–1.39) 1.06 (0.81–1.39)
Yes Yes 38/90 (42.2%) 2.09 (1.32–3.26) 2.04 (1.25–3.31)
  1. aAdjustment for region of residence at baseline, number of children at baseline, maternal and paternal education levels, household income, maternal and paternal history of asthma, atopic eczema, and allergic rhinitis, infant’s birth weight, infant’s sex, and breastfeeding duration
  2. Abbreviations: CI confidence interval, OR odds ratio, SHS secondhand smoke