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Table 2 Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for depressive symptoms during pregnancy in relation to smoking status in 1745 pregnant women, Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study, Japan, April 2007 to March 2008

From: Smoking and secondhand smoke exposure and prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy in Japan: baseline data from the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study

  Prevalence (%) Crude OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)a
Smoking status
 Never 196/1183 (16.6) 1.00 1.00
 Former 118/503 (23.5) 1.54 (1.19–1.99) 1.39 (1.06–1.83)
 Current 21/59 (35.6) 2.78 (1.57–4.80) 2.49 (1.36–4.45)
Pack-years of smoking
 None 196/1183 (16.6) 1.00 1.00
 0.05–2.9 45/207 (21.7) 1.40 (0.96–2.00) 1.18 (0.80–1.72)
 3.0–7.9 56/222 (25.2) 1.70 (1.20–2.37) 1.55 (1.08–2.22)
 ≥ 8.0 38/133 (28.6) 2.01 (1.33–3.00) 1.97 (1.26–3.03)
P for trend   < .0001 0.0005
  1. aAdjusted for age, gestation, region of residence, number of children, family structure, family income, education, job type, history of depression, and family history of depression
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