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Table 1 Characteristics of pregnant women, China, 2015 (n, %)

From: Smoking in pregnancy: a cross-sectional study in China

Variable All participants Smoker Non-smoker
Hospital level
 Level 3A hospital 1824(77.8) 1752(77.7) 72(80.0)
 Level 2 A hospitals 311(13.3) 301(13.4) 10(11.1)
 Level 2B hospitals and below 210(9.0) 202(8.9) 8(8.9)
Parity
 Pregnant women in their first pregnancy 1755(74.8) 67(74.4) 1688(74.9)
 Pregnant women s in their second pregnancy 590(25.2) 23(25.6) 567(25.1)
Nationality
 Han nationality 2252(96.0) 88(97. 8) 2164(96.0)
 Minority 93(4.0) 2(2.2) 91(4.0)
Single-child
 Yes 1046(44.6) 36(40.0) 1010(44.8)
 No 1299(55.4) 54(60.0) 1245(55.2)
Husband was single-child
 Yes 1173(50.0) 43(47.8) 1130(50.1)
 No 1172(50.0) 47(52.2) 1125(49.9)
Marital status
 Unmarried 49(2.1) 4(4.4) 45(2.0)
 Married 2205(94.0) 81(90.0) 2124(94.2)
 Remarried 70(3.0) 4(4.4) 66(2.9)
 Divorced or Widowed 21(0.9) 1(1.2) 20(0.9)
Education level
 Basic education 402(17.1) 5(5.6) 397(17.6)
 Secondary education 354(15.1) 11(12.2) 343(15.2)
 Higher education 1589(67.8) 74(82.2) 1515(67.2)
Residence
 Urban 1880(80.2) 69(76.7) 1811(80.3)
 Rural 465(19.8) 21(23.3) 444(19.7)
The per capita income of the family
  < 4500¥ 611(26.0) 25(27.8) 586(26.0)
 4500¥ to 9000 ¥ 989(42.2) 33(36.7) 956(42.4)
  > 9000¥ 745(31.8) 32(35.5) 713(31.6)
Trimester of pregnancy
 First trimester 293(12.5) 14(15.6) 279(12.4)
 Second trimester 701(29.9) 30(33.3) 671(29.8)
 Third trimester 1351(57.6) 46(51.1) 1305(57.8)
Age
 18–25 years old 624 (26.6) 19(21.1) 605(26.8)
 26–35 years old 1595(68.0) 67(74.4) 1528(67.8)
 36–45 years old 126(5.4) 4(4.5) 122(5.4)
Occupation
 Rural migrant workers 118(5.0) 2(2.2) 116(5.1)
 Urban and rural unemployed 553(23.6) 18(20.0) 535(23.7)
 Industrial workers of Non-agricultural registered permanent residence 50(2.1) 3(3.3) 47(2.1)
 Individual business 199(8.5) 9(10.0) 190(8.4)
 Business services staff 155(6.6) 10(11.1) 145(6.4)
 Civil servants 398(17.0) 16(17.8) 382(17.0)
 Senior manager and Middle-level manager in large and medium enterprise 96(4.1) 4(4.5) 92(4.1)
 Private entrepreneur 87(3.7) 2(2.2) 85(3.8)
 Professionals 244(10.4) 9(10.0) 235(10.4)
 Clerk 139(5.9) 5(5.6) 134(5.9)
 Students 15(0.6) 0(0.0) 15(0.7)
 Other 291(12.4) 12(13.3) 279(12.4)
Smoking status of peers of pregnant women
Husband    
 Smoker 939(40.0) 38(42.2) 901(40.0)
 Non-smoker 1406(60.0) 52(57.8) 1354(60.0)
 Father-in-law    
 Smoker 719(30.7) 26(28.9) 693(30.7)
 Non-smoker 1626(69.3) 64(71.1) 1562(69.3)
Mother-in-law    
 Smoker 42(1.8) 6(0.3) 36(1.6)
 Non-smoker 2303(98.2) 36(1.6) 2219(98.4)
Father    
 Smoker 700(29.8) 27(30) 673(29.8)
 Non-smoker 1645(70.2) 63(70) 1582(70.2)
Mother    
 Smoker 18(0.8) 1(1.1) 17(0.7)
 Non-smoker 2327(99.2) 89(98.9) 2238(99.3)
Colleague    
 Smoker 736(31.4) 24(26.7) 712(31.6)
 Non-smoker 1609(68.6) 66(73.3) 1543(68.4)
Friend    
 Smoker 732(31.2) 26(28.9) 706(31.3)
 Non-smoker 1613(68.8) 64(71.1) 1549(68.7)
Relative    
 Smoker 625(26.6) 21(23.3) 604(26.8)
 Non-smoker 1720(73.4) 69(76.7) 1651(73.2)
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