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Table 1 Exposure characteristics of reported incidents and most frequently identified clinical effects from European poison Centers, 2012–2015

From: Characteristics and outcomes of e-cigarette exposure incidents reported to 10 European Poison Centers: a retrospective data analysis

   Total
   n %
Exposure Reason Unintentional 196 71.3
Intentional 49 17.8
Abuse 15 5.5
Misuse 6 2.2
Suspected Suicide 3 1.1
Unknown 6 2.2
Exposure route Ingestion 187 67.5
Respiratory 46 16.6
Dermal 25 9.0
Ocular 21 7.6
Other 6 2.2
Initial type of exposure E-cigarette refill liquid 240 87.3
E-cigarette non refill 2 0.7
Unknown type 33 12.0
Clinical effects Vomiting 56 20.3
Dizziness 40 14.5
Nausea 38 13.8
Throat Conditions 25 9.1
 Throat irritation 9 3.3
 Burning Throat 5 1.8
 Oral Mucosal 8 2.9
 Salivation 2 0.7
 Pharyngitis 1 0.4
Abdominal Conditions 17 6.2
Eye Conditions 14 5.0
Headache 11 4.0
Diarrhoea 8 2.9
Breathing Conditions 8 2.9
Tremor 4 1.4
Other 75 27.3
Management of incident Residence/ on site 166 70.1
Hospital 56 23.7
Ambulance 4 1.7
Other/ Unknown 11 4.6
Medical Outcome Minor effect 112 53.8
No effect 82 39.4
Moderate effect 13 6.3
Major effect 1 0.5
Death 0 0.0
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