Skip to main content

Table 2 Bivariate analysis of reported exposures to e-cigarettes from European poison Centers, 2012–2015

From: Characteristics and outcomes of e-cigarette exposure incidents reported to 10 European Poison Centers: a retrospective data analysis

  All ≤5 years 6-18 years Adults
(≥19 years)
p-value Intentional Unintentional p-value No effect Effect p-value
  % n % n % n % n   % n % n   % n % n  
Age
 5 years 33.2 92 . . . . . .   5.5 4 44.4 87 <0.001 45.1 37 22.2 28 0.002
 6-18 years 9.8 27    . . . .   11.0 8 8.7 17 8.5 7 12.7 16
 ≥19 years 57.0 158 . . . . . .   84.7 61 46.9 92   46.3 38 65.6 82  
Gender
 Female 49.4 115 50.8 34 37.5 9 52.8 75 0.381 55.9 38 47.8 75 0.264 50.0 39 51.2 63 0.866
 Male 50.6 118 49.3 33 62.5 15 47.2 67 44.1 30 52.2 82 50.0 39 48.8 60
Exposure route
 Ingestion 67.8 187 87.0 80 59.3 16 57.6 91 <0.001 54.8 40 71.9 141 0.008 74.4 61 54.8 69 0.004
 Respiratory 16.3 45 5.4 5 22.2 6 22.2 35 0.002 41.1 30 7.1 14 <0.001 9.8 8 28.6 36 0.001
 Dermal 9.1 25 5.4 5 11.1 3 10.8 17 0.339 1.4 1 12.2 24 0.006 13.4 11 7.9 10 0.200
 Ocular 7.6 21 2.2 2 3.7 1 11.4 18 0.021 0.0 0 10.7 21 0.004 6.1 5 9.5 12 0.378
 Other 2.2 6 2.2 2 7.4 2 1.3 2 0.128 2.7 2 2.0 4 0.730 0.0 0 1.6 2 0.252
Clinical effects
 Vomiting 20.3 56 20.7 19 29.6 8 18.5 29 0.410 24.7 18 17.9 35 0.212 1.2 1 33.3 42 <0.001
 Dizziness 14.5 40 7.6 7 25.9 7 16.6 26 0.032 21.9 16 12.2 24 0.047 1.2 1 27.8 35 <0.001
 Nausea 13.8 38 8.7 8 22.2 6 15.4 24 0.139 17.8 13 11.8 23 0.199 1.2 1 28.6 36 <0.001
 Throat Conditions 9.1 25 6.5 6 18.5 5 8.9 14 0.161 9.6 7 7.1 14 0.506 6.1 5 15.1 19 0.048
 Abdominal Conditio 6.2 17 5.4 5 7.4 2 6.4 10 0.919 9.6 7 5.1 10 0.179 1.2 1 10.3 13 0.010
 Eye Conditions 5.1 14 1.1 1 0.0 0 8.3 13 0.020 0.0 0 7.1 14 0.019 2.4 2 7.1 9 0.139
 Headache 4.0 11 0.0 0 11.1 3 5.1 8 0.019 6.9 5 3.1 6 0.163 1.2 1 7.9 10 0.034
 Diarrhoea 2.9 8 0.0 0 7.4 2 3.8 6 0.075 6.9 5 1.5 3 0.022 0.0 1 4.8 6 0.045
 Breathing Conditions 2.9 8 2.2 2 7.4 2 2.6 4 0.334 8.2 6 1.0 2 0.002 0.0 0 5.6 7 0.030
 Tremor 1.4 4 0.0 0 0.0 0 3.2 4 0.215 4.1 3 0.5 1 0.030 0.0 0 3.2 4 0.103
 Other 27.3 75 20.9 19 33.3 9 29.9 47 0.230 38.4 28 23.1 45 0.012 3.7 3 42.9 54 <0.001
Clinical outcome
 No effect 53.8 112 56.9 37 30.4 7 31.7 38 0.002 18.4 9 48.3 71 <0.001 . . . .  
 Effect 45.7 96 43.1 28 69.6 16 68.3 82 81.6 40 51.7 76      
 Minor effect 39.4 82 38.5 25 52.2 12 62.5 75 81.6 40 51.7 76 . . . .  
 Moderate/Major effect 6.3 14 4.6 3 17.4 4 5.8 7 0.0 0 0.0 0 . . . .  
  1. The numbers in bold are significant with a p-value at least <0.05 as defined through Chi-squared tests
\