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Table 3 Self-reported performance of the 5A’s intervention, development of some related activities and knowledge of tobacco cessation resources by independent variables (individual and by organization)

From: Factors associated with implementation of the 5A’s smoking cessation model

  Ask Advise Assess Assist Arrange
mean (sd) p mean (sd) p mean (sd) p mean (sd) p mean (sd) p
Overall 6.4 (3.1)   7.1 (2.7)   6.3 (2.8)   4.4 (2.9)   3.2 (3.3)  
Individual characteristics
 Profession
  Doctors 8.5 (2.4) <.001 8.1 (2.7) 0.001 7.0 (2.5) 0.018 4.4 (2.9) 0.069 3.8 (3.2) 0.027
  Nurses 7.0 (2.9) 7.2 (2.5) 6.5 (2.6) 4.6 (3.0) 3.4 (3.4)
  Others 4.9 (3.2) 6.7 (3.0) 5.8 (3.1) 4.0 (2.9) 2.7 (3.0)
 Sex
  Women 6.3 (3.1) 0.102 7.0 (2.7) 0.304 6.3 (2.8) 0.715 4.4 (2.9) 0.450 3.1 (3.3) 0.477
  Men 6.8 (3.2) 7.2 (2.9) 6.2 (2.8) 4.6 (3.0) 3.4 (3.2)
 Smoking
  Smokers 5.8 (3.3) 0.006 6.1 (2.9) <.001 5.9 (2.9) 0.046 3.9 (2.7) 0.018 2.5 (2.8) 0.014
  Former smokers 6.4 (3.1) 7.5 (2.6) 6.5 (2.7) 4.7 (3.0) 3.3 (3.4)
  Never smokers 6.7 (3.0) 7.3 (2.6) 6.4 (2.7) 4.5 (3.0) 3.5 (3.3)
 Age
   < 40 years/old 6.5 (3.0) 0.568 6.8 (2.7) 0.001 6.1 (2.8) 0.049 4.3 (2.8) 0.378 2.9 (3.0) 0.226
   ≥ 40 years/old 6.3 (3.3) 7.4 (2.8) 6.5 (2.8) 4.5 (3.1) 3.4 (3.5)
 Working experience
   < 14 years 6.3 (3.0) 0.094 6.8 (2.7) 0.001 6.2 (2.7) 0.126 4.3 (2.8) 0.387 3.1 (3.1) 0.476
   ≥ 14 years 6.6 (3.2) 7.4 (2.7) 6.5 (2.7) 4.5 (3.0) 3.3 (3.4)
 Previous Training
  Yes 7.2 (2.5) 0.023 7.8 (2.2) 0.003 7.1 (2.4) 0.002 5.8 (2.8) <.001 4.9 (3.3) <.001
  No 6.2 (3.3) 6.9 (2.8) 6.1 (2.8) 4.1 (2.9) 2.8 (3.1)
Organizational characteristics
 Type of center
  Hospital 6.3 (3.1) 0.158 7.1 (2.8) 0.961 6.3 (2.8) 0.125 4.4 (3.0) 0.291 3.1 (3.2) 0.021
  Others 6.8 (3.2) 7.1 (2.7) 6.7 (2.8) 4.7 (2.8) 3.9 (3.3)
 Type of organization
  Public 6.6 (3.1) 0.014 7.1 (2.7) 0.942 6.3 (2.7) 0.588 4.4 (2.9) 0.702 3.1 (3.2) 0.540
  Private 5.8 (3.3) 7.0 (3.0) 6.4 (3.0) 4.5 (3.0) 3.4 (3.3)
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