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Table 4 Cognitive, behavioral, and organizational barriers and opportunities performing the 5A’s model

From: Factors associated with implementation of the 5A’s smoking cessation model

   Ask Advise Assess Assist Arrange
  Overall Acceptable (≥ 5) Low (< 5)   Acceptable (≥ 5) Low (< 5)   Acceptable (≥ 5) Low (< 5)   Acceptable (≥ 5) Low (< 5)   Acceptable (≥ 5) Low (< 5)  
  mean (SD) mean (SD) mean (SD) p mean (SD) mean (SD) p mean (SD) mean (SD) p mean (SD) mean (SD) p mean (SD) mean (SD) p
Cognitive Factors
 Motivation to help patients to quit 8.1 (1.9) 8.4 (1.6) 7.4 (2.5) <.001 8.4 (1.6) 6.8 (2.5) <.001 8.4 (1.6) 7.3 (2.5) <.001 8.5 (1.5) 7.8 (2.1) <.001 8.6 (1.4) 7.9 (2.0) <.001
 Importance of cessation in their job 8.2 (1.1) 8.5 (1.8) 7.4 (2.4) <.001 8.5 (1.7) 6.9 (2.5) <.001 8.5 (1.7) 7.2 (2.5) <.001 8.6 (1.6) 7.8 (2.2) <.001 8.7 (1.4) 8.0 (2.2) 0.001
 Self-reported preparedness 4.4 (2.6) 4.8 (2.5) 3.2 (2.5) <.001 4.7 (2.5) 2.1 (2.2) <.001 4.7 (2.5) 3.2 (2.4) <.001 5.6 (2.2) 3.2 (2.3) <.001 5.9 (2.1) 3.6 (2.4) <.001
 Preparedness in using drugs 3.4 (2.7) 3.8 (2.8) 2.1 (2.2) <.001 3.7 (2.8) 2.0 (2.1) <.001 3.8 (2.7) 2.2 (2.3) <.001 4.6 (2.6) 2.2 (2.3) <.001 5.2 (2.5) 2.5 (2.3) <.001
 Competency in assisting smokers 5.0 (2.6) 5.5 (2.4) 3.2 (2.3) <.001 5.4 (2.5) 3.0 (2.3) <.001 5.4 (2.4) 3.2 (2.5) <.001 6.1 (2.2) 3.7 (2.4) <.001 6.5 (2.0) 4.2 (2.5) <.001
 Security to motivate smokers 6.3 (2.1) 6.7 (1.9) 5.0 (2.2) <.001 6.7 (1.8) 4.5 (2.3) <.001 6.7 (1.8) 4.9 (2.5) <.001 7.1 (1.5) 5.5 (2.3) <.001 7.2 (1.4) 5.8 (2.2) <.001
 Wish more training 8.3 (2.1) 8.5 (1.8) 7.6 (2.5) <.001 8.6 (1.8) 7.1 (2.7) <.001 8.6 (1.7) 7.3 (2.8) <.001 8.6 (1.7) 8.0 (2.3) 0.003 8.6 (1.6) 8.1 (2.3) 0.043
 It is part of my job 6.4 (3.3) 7.1 (2.9) 4.1 (3.3) <.001 6.8 (3.1) 4.6 (3.5) <.001 6.9 (2.1) 4.5 (3.6) <.001 7.4 (2.7) 5.3 (3.5) <.001 7.6 (2.6) 5.7 (3.4) <.001
Behavioral Factors
 Uses additional resources to intervene 5.8 (2.5) 6.3 (2.2) 4.4 (2.9) <.001 6.2 (2.3) 3.9 (3.0) <.001 6.2 (2.2) 4.3 (3.1) <.001 6.7 (2.0) 4.9 (2.8) <.001 6.6 (1.9) 5.4 (2.8) <.001
 Frequency in seeing tobacco-related diseases 7.8 (2.1) 8.1 (1.8) 6.8 (2.5) <.001 8.1 (1.8) 6.4 (2.6) <.001 8.0 (1.8) 6.9 (2.6) <.001 8.1 (1.7) 7.4 (2.4) 0.001 8.2 (1.5) 7.5 (2.3) 0.006
 Familiar with practical guidelines for smoking cessation 2.4 (2.7) 2.9 (2.8) 0.8 (1.4) <.001 2.7 (2.8) 0.7 (1.2) <.001 2.8 (2.8) 0.8 (1.5) <.001 3.6 (2.8) 1.1 (1.7) <.001 4.6 (2.7) 1.2 (1.8) <.001
 Previous positive experiences 3.7 (3.2) 4.3 (3.1) 1.8 (2.4) <.001 4.1 (3.1) 1.5 (2.3) <.001 4.3 (3.1) 1.6 (2.2) <.001 5.2 (2.1) 1.1 (2.4) <.001 5.8 (2.8) 2.5 (2.7) <.001
Organizational and Support Factors
 It is protocolized in my organization 4.5 (3.4) 4.9 (3.3) 2.9 (3.0) <.001 4.8 (3.4) 2.8 (2.1) <.001 4.9 (3.3) 3.0 (3.2) <.001 5.6 (3.2) 3.2 (3.1) <.001 6.0 (2.1) 3.6 (3.3) <.001
 Required by supervisors 3.1 (3.3) 4.5 (3.4) 2.4 (2.6) <.001 4.3 (3.4) 2.3 (2.6) <.001 4.4 (3.3) 2.5 (2.1) <.001 5.2 (3.3) 2.7 (2.9) <.001 5.6 (3.1) 3.1 (3.1) <.001
 Organizational support 4.7 (3.2) 5.2 (3.2) 3.0 (2.8) <.001 5.0 (3.2) 2.1 (2.9) <.001 5.1 (3.2) 3.1 (3.0) <.001 5.1 (2.1) 3.3 (2.9) <.001 6.6 (2.8) 3.7 (3.0) <.001
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